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Open Access Open Badges Research Article

Global Optimal Regularity for the Parabolic Polyharmonic Equations

Fengping Yao

Author Affiliations

Department of Mathematics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200436, China

Boundary Value Problems 2010, 2010:879821  doi:10.1155/2010/879821

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.boundaryvalueproblems.com/content/2010/1/879821

Received:21 February 2010
Accepted:3 June 2010
Published:14 June 2010

© 2010 The Author(s)

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

We show the global regularity estimates for the following parabolic polyharmonic equation in under proper conditions. Moreover, it will be verified that these conditions are necessary for the simplest heat equation in .

1. Introduction

Regularity theory in PDE plays an important role in the development of second-order elliptic and parabolic equations. Classical regularity estimates for elliptic and parabolic equations consist of Schauder estimates, estimates, De Giorgi-Nash estimates, Krylov-Safonov estimates, and so on. and Schauder estimates, which play important roles in the theory of partial differential equations, are two fundamental estimates for elliptic and parabolic equations and the basis for the existence, uniqueness, and regularity of solutions.

The objective of this paper is to investigate the generalization of estimates, that is, regularity estimates in Orlicz spaces, for the following parabolic polyharmonic problems:



where , and is a positive integer. Since the 1960s, the need to use wider spaces of functions than Sobolev spaces arose out of various practical problems. Orlicz spaces have been studied as the generalization of Sobolev spaces since they were introduced by Orlicz [1] (see [26]). The theory of Orlicz spaces plays a crucial role in many fields of mathematics (see [7]).

We denote the distance in as


and the cylinders in as


where is an open ball in . Moreover, we denote


where is a multiple index, . For convenience, we often omit the subscript in and write .

Indeed if , then (1.1) is simplified to be the simplest heat equation. estimates and Schauder estimates for linear second-order equations are well known (see [8, 9]). When , the corresponding regularity results for the higher-order parabolic equations are less. Solonnikov [10] studied and Schauder estimates for the general linear higher-order parabolic equations with the help of fundamental solutions and Green functions. Moreover, in [11] we proved global Schauder estimates for the initial-value parabolic polyharmonic problem using the uniform approach as the second-order case. Recently we [6] generalized the local estimates to the Orlicz space




where (see Definition 1.2) and is an open bounded domain in . When with , (1.6) is reduced to the local estimates. In fact, we can replace of in (1.6) by the power of for any .

Our purpose in this paper is to extend local regularity estimate () in [6] to global regularity estimates, assuming that . Moreover, we will also show that the condition is necessary for the simplest heat equation in . In particular, we are interested in the estimate like


where is a constant independent from and . Indeed, if with , (1.8) is reduced to classical estimates. We remark that although we use similar functional framework and iteration-covering procedure as in [6, 12], more complicated analysis should be carefully carried out with a proper dilation of the unbounded domain.

Here for the reader's convenience, we will give some definitions on the general Orlicz spaces.

Definition 1.1.

A convex function is said to be a Young function if


Definition 1.2.

A Young function is said to satisfy the global condition, denoted by , if there exists a positive constant such that for every ,


Moreover, a Young function is said to satisfy the global condition, denoted by , if there exists a number such that for every ,


Example 1.3.

(i) , but .

(ii) , but .

(iii) , .

Remark 1.4.

If a function satisfies (1.10) and (1.11), then


for every and , where and .

Remark 1.5.

Under condition (1.12), it is easy to check that satisfies


Definition 1.6.

Assume that is a Young function. Then the Orlicz class is the set of all measurable functions satisfying


The Orlicz space is the linear hull of .

Lemma 1.7 (see [2]).

Assume that and . Then


(2) is dense in ,



Now let us state the main results of this work.

Theorem 1.8.

Assume that is a Young function and satisfies


Then if the following inequality holds


One has


Theorem 1.9.

Assume that . If is the solution of (1.1)-(1.2) with , then (1.8) holds.

Remark 1.10.

We would like to point out that the condition is necessary. In fact, if the local estimate (1.6) is true, then by choosing


we have


which implies that


2. Proof of Theorem 1.8

In this section we show that satisfies the global condition if satisfies (1.16) and estimate (1.17) is true.


Now we consider the special case in (1.16) when


for any constant , where and is a cutoff function satisfying


Therefore the problem (1.16) has the solution


It follows from (1.17), (2.1), and (2.2) that


We know from (2.3) that




Then when and , we have




Therefore, since for and , we conclude that


Recalling estimate (2.4) we find that


which implies that


By changing variable we conclude that, for any ,


where . Let and . Then we conclude from (2.12) that


Now we use (2.12) and (2.13) to obtain that


where we choose that , in (2.13). Set . Then we have


when is chosen large enough. This implies that satisfies the condition. Thus this completes our proof.

3. Proof of the Main Result

In this section, we will finish the proof of the main result, Theorem 1.9. Just as [6], we will use the following two lemmas. The first lemma is the following integral inequality.

Lemma 3.1 (see [6]).

Let , and , where is defined in (1.12). Then for any one has


Moreover, we recall the following result.

Lemma 3.2 (see [10, Theorem ]).

Assume that for . There exists a unique solution of (1.1)-(1.2) with the estimate


Moreover, we give one important lemma, which is motivated by the iteration-covering procedure in [12]. To start with, let be a solution of (1.1)-(1.2). Let


In fact, in the subsequent proof we can choose any constant with . Now we write


while is a small enough constant which will be determined later. Set


for any . Then is still the solution of (1.1)-(1.2) with replacing . Moreover, we write


for any domain in and the level set


Next, we will decompose the level set .

Lemma 3.3.

For any , there exists a family of disjoint cylinders with and such that



where . Moreover, one has



() Fix any . We first claim that


where satisfies . To prove this, fix any and . Then it follows from (3.4) that


() For a.e. , from Lebesgue's differentiation theorem we have


which implies that there exists some satisfying


Therefore from (3.11) we can select a radius such that


Therefore, applying Vitali's covering lemma, we can find a family of disjoint cylinders such that (3.8) and (3.9) hold.

(3) Equation (3.8) implies that


Therefore, by splitting the two integrals above as follows we have


Thus we can obtain the desired result (3.10).

Now we are ready to prove the main result, Theorem 1.9.


In the following by the elementary approximation argument as [3, 12] it is sufficient to consider the proof of (1.8) under the additional assumption that . In view of Lemma 3.3, given any , we can construct a family of cylinders , where . Fix . It follows from (3.6) and (3.8) in Lemma 3.3 that


We first extend from to by the zero extension and denote by . From Lemma 3.2, there exists a unique solution of


with the estimate


Therefore we see that


Set . Then we know that


Moreover, by (3.18) and (3.21) we have


Thus from the elementary interior regularity, we know that there exists a constant such that


Set . Therefore, we deduce from (3.5) and (3.24) that


Then according to (3.18) and (3.21), we discover


Therefore, from (3.10) in Lemma 3.3 we find that


where . Recalling the fact that the cylinders are disjoint,


and then summing up on in the inequality above, we have


Therefore, from Lemma 1.7(3) and the inequality above we have


Consequently, from Lemma 3.1 we conclude that


where and . Finally selecting a suitable such that , we finish the proof.


The author wishes to thank the anonymous referee for offering valuable suggestions to improve the expressions. This work is supported in part by Tianyuan Foundation (10926084) and Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20093108120003). Moreover, the author wishes to thank the department of mathematics at Shanghai university which was supported by the Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (J50101) and Key Disciplines of Shanghai Municipality (S30104).


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