Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the Cauchy problem for the incompressible magnetomicropolar fluid equations with partial viscosity in ℝ^{n}(n = 2, 3). We obtain a BealeKatoMajda type blowup criterion of smooth solutions.
MSC (2010): 76D03; 35Q35.
Keywords:
magnetomicropolar fluid equations; smooth solutions; blowup criterion1 Introduction
The incompressible magnetomicropolar fluid equations in ℝ^{n}(n = 2, 3) takes the following form
where u(t, x), v(t, x), b(t, x) and p(t, x) denote the velocity of the fluid, the microrotational velocity, magnetic field
and hydrostatic pressure, respectively. μ, χ, γ, κ and ν are constants associated with properties of the material: μ is the kinematic viscosity, χ is the vortex viscosity, γ and κ are spin viscosities, and
If b = 0, (1.1) reduces to micropolar fluid equations. The micropolar fluid equations was first proposed by Eringen [9]. It is a type of fluids which exhibits the microrotational effects and microrotational inertia, and can be viewed as a nonNewtonian fluid. Physically, micropolar fluid may represent fluids that consisting of rigid, randomly oriented (or spherical particles) suspended in a viscous medium, where the deformation of fluid particles is ignored. It can describe many phenomena appeared in a large number of complex fluids such as the suspensions, animal blood, liquid crystals which cannot be characterized appropriately by the NavierStokes equations, and that it is important to the scientists working with the hydrodynamicfluid problems and phenomena. For more background, we refer to [10] and references therein. The existences of weak and strong solutions for micropolar fluid equations were treated by Galdi and Rionero [11] and Yamaguchi [12], respectively. The global regularity issue has been thoroughly investigated for the 3D micropolar fluid equations and many important regularity criteria have been established (see [1319]). The convergence of weak solutions of the micropolar fluids in bounded domains of ℝ^{n }was investigated (see [20]). When the viscosities tend to zero, in the limit, a fluid governed by an Eulerlike system was found.
If both v = 0 and χ = 0, then Equations 1.1 reduces to be the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The local wellposedness of the Cauchy problem for the incompressible MHD equations in the usual Sobolev spaces H^{s}(ℝ^{3}) is established in [21] for any given initial data that belongs to H^{s}(ℝ^{3}), s ≥ 3. But whether this unique local solution can exist globally is a challenge open problem in the mathematical fluid mechanics. There are numerous important progresses on the fundamental issue of the regularity for the weak solution to (1.1), (1.2) (see [2234]). In this paper, we consider the magnetomicropolar fluid equations (1.1) with partial viscosity, i.e., μ = χ = 0. Without loss of generality, we take γ = κ = ν = 1. The corresponding magnetomicropolar fluid equations thus reads
We obtain a blowup criterion of smooth solutions to (1.2), which improves our previous result (see [2]).
In the absence of global wellposedness, the development of blowup/nonblowup theory
is of major importance for both theoretical and practical purposes. For incompressible
Euler and NavierStokes equations, the wellknown BealeKatoMajda's criterion [35] says that any solution u is smooth up to time T under the assumption that
Now, we state our results as follows.
Theorem 1.1 Assume that u_{0}, v_{0}, b_{0 }∈ H^{m}(ℝ^{n})(n = 2, 3), m ≥ 3 with ∇ · u_{0 }= 0, ∇ · b_{0 }= 0. Let (u, v, b) be a smooth solution to Equations 1.2 with initial data u(_{0}, x) = u_{0}(x), v(0, x) = v_{0}(x), b(0, x) = b_{0}(x) for 0 ≤ t < T . If u satisfies
then the solution (u, v, b) can be extended beyond t = T.
We have the following corollary immediately.
Corollary 1.1 Assume that u_{0}, v_{0}, b_{0 }∈ H^{m}(ℝ^{n})(n = 2, 3), m ≥ 3 with ∇ · u_{0 }= 0, ∇ · b_{0 }= 0. Let (u, v, b) be a smooth solution to Equations 1.2 with initial data u(0, x) = u_{0}(x), v(0, x) = v_{0}(x), b(0, x) = b_{0}(x) for 0 ≤ t < T . Suppose that T is the maximal existence time, then
The plan of the paper is arranged as follows. We first state some preliminary on functional settings and some important inequalities in Section 2 and then prove the blowup criterion of smooth solutions to the magnetomicropolar fluid equations (1.2) in Section 3.
2 Preliminaries
Let
and for any given
In what follows, we recall the LittlewoodPaley decomposition. Choose a nonnegative
radial functions
The frequency localization operator is defined by
Next, we recall the definition of homogeneous function spaces (see [37]). For (p, q) ∈ [1, ∞]^{2 }and s ∈ ℝ, the homogeneous Besov space
In what follows, we shall make continuous use of Bernstein inequalities, which comes from [38].
Lemma 2.1 For any s ∈ ℕ, 1 ≤ p ≤ q ≤ ∞ and f ∈ L^{p}(ℝ^{n}), then the following inequalities
and
hold, where c and C are positive constants independent of f and k.
The following inequality is wellknown GagliardoNirenberg inequality.
Lemma 2.2 Let j, m be any integers satisfying 0 ≤ j < m, and let 1 ≤ q, r ≤ ∞, and
Then for all f ∈ L^{q}(ℝ^{n}) ∩W^{m,r}(ℝ^{n}), there is a positive constant C depending only on n, m, j, q, r, θ such that the following inequality holds:
with the following exception: if 1 < r < 1 and
The following lemma comes from [39].
Lemma 2.3 Assume that 1 < p < ∞. For f, g ∈ W^{m,p}, and 1 < q_{1}, q_{2 }≤ ∞, 1 < r_{1}, r_{2 }< 1, we have
where 1 ≤ α ≤ m and
Lemma 2.4 There exists a uniform positive constant C, such that
holds for all vectors f ∈ H^{3}(ℝ^{n})(n = 2, 3) with ∇ · f = 0.
Proof. The proof can be founded in [36]. For the convenience of the readers, the proof will be also sketched here. It follows from LittlewoodPaley composition that
Using (2.1), ( 2.2) and (2.6), we obtain
Taking
It follows from (2.7), (2.8) and CalderonZygmand theory that (2.5) holds. Thus, we have completed the proof of lemma. □
In order to prove Theorem 1.1, we need the following interpolation inequalities in two and three space dimensions.
Lemma 2.5 In three space dimensions, the following inequalities
hold, and in two space dimensions, the following inequalities
hold.
Proof. (2.9) and (2.10) are of course well known. In fact, we can obtain them by Sobolev embedding and the scaling techniques. In what follows, we only prove the last inequality in (2.9) and (2.10). Sobolev embedding implies that H^{3}(ℝ^{n}), ↪ L^{4}(ℝ^{n}) for n = 2, 3. Consequently, we get
For any given 0 ≠ f ∈ H^{3}(ℝ^{n}) and δ > 0, let
By (2.11) and (2.12), we obtain
which is equivalent to
Taking
3 Proof of main results
Proof of Theorem 1.1. Adding the inner product of u with the first equation of (1.2), of v with the second equation of (1.2) and of b the third equation of (1.2), then using integration by parts, we get
where we have used ∇ ·· u = 0 and ∇ · b = 0.
Integrating with respect to t, we have
Applying ∇ to (1.2) and taking the L^{2 }inner product of the resulting equation with (∇u, ∇v, ∇b), with help of integration by parts, we have
By (3.3) and ∇ · u = 0, ∇ · b = 0, we deduce that
Using Gronwall inequality, we get
Owing to (1.3), we know that for any small constant ε > 0, there exists T_{* }< T such that
Let
It follows from (3.5), (3.6), (3.7) and Lemma 2.4 that
where C_{1 }depends on
Applying ∇^{m }to the first equation of (1.2), then taking L^{2 }inner product of the resulting equation with ∇^{m}u and using integration by parts, we have
Likewise, we obtain
and
It follows (3.9), (3.10), (3.11), ∇ · u = 0, ∇ · b = 0 and integration by parts that
In what follows, for simplicity, we will set m = 3.
With help of Hölder inequality and Lemma 2.3, we derive
Using integration by parts and Hölder inequality, we get
Thanks to Lemma 2.5, Young inequality and (3.8), we get
in 3D and
in 2D.
It follows from Lemmas 2.2, 2.5, Young inequality and (3.8) that
in 3D and
in 2D.
Consequently, we get
and
provided that
It follows from (3.14), (3.15) and (3.16) that
Likewise, we have
and
Collecting (3.12), (3.13), (3.17), (3.18), (3.19) and (3.20) yields
for all T_{* }≤ t < T.
Integrating (3.21) with respect to time from T_{* }to τ and using Lemma 2.4, we have
Owing to (3.22), we get
For all T_{* }≤ t < T, with help of Gronwall inequality and (3.23), we have
where C depends on
Noting that (3.2) and the righthand side of (3.24) is independent of t for T_{* }≤ t < T , we know that (u(T, ·), v(T, ·), b(T, ·)) ∈ H^{3}(ℝ^{n}). Thus, Theorem 1.1 is proved.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors' contributions
YZW completed the main part of theorem in this paper, YL and YXW revised the part proof. All authors read and approve the final manuscript.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank the referee for his/her pertinent comments and advice. This work was supported in part by Research Initiation Project for Highlevel Talents (201031) of North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power.
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