Boundary Value Problems
Open Badges Research

Spatial estimates for a class of hyperbolic equations with nonlinear dissipative boundary conditions

Faramarz Tahamtani* and Amir Peyravi

Author Affiliations

Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71454, Iran

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Boundary Value Problems 2011, 2011:19  doi:10.1186/1687-2770-2011-19

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.boundaryvalueproblems.com/content/2011/1/19

 Received: 3 April 2011 Accepted: 30 August 2011 Published: 30 August 2011

© 2011 Tahamtani and Peyravi; licensee Springer.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This paper is concerned with investigating the spatial behavior of solutions for a class of hyperbolic equations in semi-infinite cylindrical domains, where nonlinear dissipative boundary conditions imposed on the lateral surface of the cylinder. The main tool used is the weighted energy method.

Mathematics Subject Classification (2010) 35B40, 35L05, 35L35

Keywords:
Hyperbolic equation; Nonlinear boundary conditions; Phragmén-Lindelöf type theorem; Asymptotic behavior

1 Introduction

The aim of this paper is to study the spatial asymptotic behavior of solutions of the problem determined by the equation

u t t = Δ u t - a u t - Δ 2 u , ( x , t ) Ω × ( 0 , ) , (1.1)

where a is a positive constant and

Ω = { x R n : x n R + , x = ( x 1 , , x n - 1 ) Γ x n R n - 1 } ,

where

Γ τ = { ( x , x n ) Ω : x n = τ } .

When we consider equation (1.1), we impose the initial and boundary conditions

u ( x , 0 ) = u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , x Ω , (1.2)

u ( x , 0 , t ) = h 1 ( x , t ) , u v ( x , 0 , t ) = h 2 ( x , t ) , ( x , t ) Γ 0 × ( 0 , ) , (1.3)

u = 0 , Δ u = - f u ν , ( x , t ) Σ 0 × ( 0 , ) , (1.4)

where ν is the outward normal to the boundary and

Σ τ = { x R n : x Γ x n , τ x n < } ,

where τ Γ ̄ τ is a map from R+ into family of bounded domains in Rn-1 with sufficiently smooth boundary Γτ such that

0 < m 0 inf τ Γ τ sup τ Γ τ m 1 < .

In the sequel, we are using

Ω τ = Ω { x R n : 0 < x n < τ } ,

R τ = Ω { x R n : τ < x n < } ,

and assume f satisfies

F ( v ) = 0 v f ( ξ ) d ξ α v f ( v ) > 0 , α > 0 , v R , (1.5)

v f ( v ) γ v 2 p , p > 1 2 , γ > 0 , v R . (1.6)

In recent years, much attention has been directed to the study of spatial behavior of solutions of partial differential equations and systems. The history and development of this question is explained in the work of Horgan and Knowles [1]. The interested reader is referred to the papers [2-9] and the reviews by Horgan and Knowles [1,10,11]. The energy method is widely used to study such results.

Spatial growth or decay estimates for nontrivial solutions of initial -boundary value problems in semi-infinite domains with nonlinearities on the boundary have been studied by many authors. Since 1908, when Edvard Phragmén and Ernst Lindelöf published their idea [12], many authors have obtained spatial growth or decay results by Phragmén-Lindelöf theorems. In [13], Horgan and Payne proved some these types of theorems and showed the asymptotic behavior of harmonic functions defined on a three-dimensional semi-infinite cylinder when homogeneous nonlinear boundary conditions are imposed on the lateral surface of the cylinder. Payne and Schaefer [14] proved such results for some classes of heat conduction problems. In [15], Quintanilla investigate the spatial behavior of several nonlinear parabolic equations with nonlinear boundary conditions, (see also [16,17]).

Under nonlinear dissipative feedbacks on the boundary, Nouria [18] proved a polynomial stability for regular initial data and exponential stability for some analytic initial data of a square Euler-Bernoulli plate. For the used methodology, one can see [19,20] where the stabilities are investigated in the cases bounded and unbounded feedbacks for some evolution equations. Recently, Celebi and Kalantarov [21] established a Phragmén-Lindelöf type theorems for a linear wave equation under nonlinear boundary conditions. In our study, we establish Phragmén-Lindelöf type theorems for equation (1.1) with nonlinear dissipative feedback terms on the boundary. Our study is inspired by the results of [21].

For the proof of our results, we will use the following Lemma.

Lemma [22]Let ψ be a monotone increasing function with ψ(0) = 0 and limz→∞ψ(z) = ∞. Then φ(z) > 0 satisfying φ(z) < ψ(φ'(z)), z > 0, tends to +∞ when z → +∞.

(i) If ψ(z) ≤ czm for some c and m > 1 for z z1, then

liminf z + z - m m - 1 φ ( z ) > 0 .

(ii) If ψ(z) ≤ cz for some c and z z1, then

liminf z + φ ( z ) exp - z c > 0 .

2 Spatial estimates

With the solutions of (1.1-1.4) with hi(x', t) = 0, i = 1, 2 is naturally associated an energy function

E ( τ ) = 0 T | | u t | | Ω τ 2 + | | u t | | Ω τ 2 + | | Δ u | | Ω τ 2 + 0 τ Γ η u f ( u ) d s d η d t , (2.1)

where ||.||Ω denotes the usual norm in L2(Ω).

A multiplication of equation (1.1) by ut, integrating over Ωτ and using (1.3-1.5):

d d t 1 2 | | u t | | Ω τ 2 + 1 2 | | Δ u | | Ω τ 2 + 0 τ Γ η F ( u ) d s d η + a | | u t | | Ω τ 2 + | | u t | | Ω τ 2 = - ( u t , u x n x n x n ) Γ τ + ( u t x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ + ( u t , u t x n ) Γ τ .

Since

( u t , u x n x n x n ) Γ τ = - ( u t x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ ,

we obtain

d d t 1 2 | | u t | | Ω τ 2 + 1 2 | | Δ u | | Ω τ 2 + 0 τ Γ η F ( u ) d s d η + a | | u t | | Ω τ 2 + | | u t | | Ω τ 2 = 2 ( u t x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ + ( u t , u t x n ) Γ τ . (2.2)

Let δ > 0. Multiplying (1.1) by δu, integrating over Ωτ, and adding to (2.2), we obtain

d d t 1 2 | | u t | | Ω τ 2 + 1 2 | | Δ u | | Ω τ 2 + δ ( u , u t ) Ω τ + a δ 2 | | u | | Ω τ 2 + δ 2 | | u | | Ω τ 2 + 0 τ Γ η F ( u ) d s d η + ( a - δ ) | | u t | | Ω τ 2 + | | u t | | Ω τ 2 + δ | | Δ u | | Ω τ 2 + δ 0 τ Γ η u f ( u ) d s d η = 2 ( u t x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ + ( u t , u t x n ) Γ τ + 2 δ ( u x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ + δ ( u , u t x n ) Γ τ . (2.3)

Integrating (2.3) with respect to t over (0, T) and using (1.5), one can find

1 2 | | u t | | Ω τ 2 + 1 2 | | Δ u | | Ω τ 2 + δ 2 | | u | | Ω τ 2 + a δ 2 | | u | | Ω τ 2 + δ ( u , u t ) Ω τ + α 0 τ Γ η u f ( u ) d s d η + ( a δ ) 0 T | | u t | | Ω τ 2 d t + δ 0 T | | Δ u | | Ω τ 2 d t + 0 T | | u t | | Ω τ 2 d t + δ 0 T 0 τ Γ η u f ( u ) d s d η d t 0 T [ 2 ( u tx n , u x n x n ) Γ τ + ( u t , u tx n ) Γ τ ] dt   + 0 T [ 2 δ ( u x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ + δ ( u , u t x n ) Γ τ ] dt . (2.4)

On exploiting (2.1) and the inequality - 1 4 u t Ω τ 2 - δ 2 u Ω τ 2 δ ( u , u t ) Ω τ , the estimate (2.4) takes the form

σ - 1 E ( τ ) 0 T [ ( u t x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ + ( u t , u t x n ) Γ τ ] d t + 0 T [ ( u x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ + ( u , u t x n ) Γ τ ] d t , (2.5)

by choosing δ = a 2 , δ 1 = min { 1 , a 2 } , σ = max { a δ 1 , 2 δ 1 } . Now we find upper bounds for the right hand side of (2.5). Using the Young's and Schwartz inequalities, we have

0 T ( u t x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ d t 1 2 0 T | | u t | | Γ τ 2 d t + 1 2 0 T | | Δ u | | Γ τ 2 d t , (2.6)

0 T ( u t , u t x n ) Γ τ d t 1 2 0 T | | u t | | Γ τ 2 d t + 1 2 0 T | | u t | | Γ τ 2 d t , (2.7)

0 T ( u x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ d t 0 T | | u x n | | Γ τ | | u x n x n | | Γ τ d t . (2.8)

By the Poincaré inequality, it is not difficult to see

v D 2 λ - 1 v D 2 + D - 1 D v d A 2 . (2.9)

Inserting (2.9) into (2.8), we get

0 T ( u x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ d t 0 T λ τ - 1 2 | | Δ u | | Γ τ + Γ τ - 1 2 Γ τ u d A | | u x n x n | | Γ τ d t , (2.10)

where Δ' and ∇' are Laplacian and gradient operators in Rn-1, respectively, |Γτ| is the area of Γτ and λτ is the Poincaré constant. Now, we recall the inequality

D v d A r 0 2 D v d s + I 0 1 2 2 D v 2 d A 1 2 , (2.11)

from [13] where r 0 2 = sup D | x | 2 and I 0 = D | x | 2 d A . Using (2.11) and the Hölder's inequality to estimate the boundary integral Γ τ u d A in (2.10), we obtain

0 T ( u x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ d t 0 T M 1 | | Δ u | | Γ τ + γ 1 2 p M 2 Γ τ | u | 2 p d A 1 2 p | | u x n x n | | Γ τ d t , (2.12)

where M 1 = λ - 1 2 + I 1 2 2 m 1 2 , M 2 = 1 2 r L ( 2 p - 1 ) 2 p m - 1 2 γ - 1 2 p , such that r = supτ rτ, λ = infτ λτ, I = supτ Iτ, L = supτ Lτ and m = infτ τ| in which Lτ is the area of ∂Γτ. From (1.6) the inequality (2.12) yields

0 T ( u x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ d t M 1 0 T | | Δ u | | Γ τ 2 d t + M 2 0 T Γ τ u f ( u ) d A 1 2 p | | u x n x n | | Γ τ d t . (2.13)

Consequently

Γ τ u f ( u ) d s 1 2 p Γ τ u x n x n 2 d A 1 2 = Γ τ u f ( u ) d s 1 p + 1 Γ τ u x n x n 2 d A p p + 1 p + 1 2 p μ p 1 + p Γ τ u f ( u ) d s + p μ ( 1 + p ) Γ τ u x n x n 2 d A p + 1 2 p ,

where the Young's inequality

α ε β 1 - ε = ( α γ ) ε β γ - ε 1 - ε ( 1 - ε ) ε α γ + ( 1 - ε ) β γ - ε 1 - ε ,

for 0 < ε < 1, μ = p 1 p + 1 and γ = μp have been used. Therefore,

Γ τ u f ( u ) d s 1 2 p Γ τ u x n x n 2 d A 1 2 N ( p ) Γ τ u f ( u ) d s + Γ τ u x n x n 2 d A p + 1 2 p , (2.14)

where

N ( p ) = p p p + 1 ( 1 + p ) .

By using (2.13) and (2.14), we get

0 T ( u x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ d t M 1 0 T | | Δ u | | Γ τ 2 d t + M 2 N ˜ ( p ) 0 T ( Γ τ u f ( u ) d s + Γ τ u x n x n 2 d A ) p + 1 2 p d t , (2.15)

where N ˜ ( p ) = [ N ( p ) ] p + 1 2 p . From (2.15), it is easy to see

0 T ( u x n , u x n x n ) Γ τ d t M 1 0 T | | Δ u | | Γ τ 2 d t + M 2 C N ˜ ( p ) ( 0 T Γ τ u f ( u ) d s d t + 0 T | | Δ u | | Γ τ 2 d t ) p + 1 2 p ,

where C is a positive constant.

Next, we exploit Poincaré inequality to estimate

0 T ( u , u t x n ) Γ τ d t ρ - 1 2 0 T | | Δ u | | Γ τ 2 d t + 1 2 0 T | | u t | | Γ τ 2 d t , (2.17)

where ρ is the Poincaré constant.

Now, from the inequalities (2.5-2.7), (2.16), and (2.17), one can find

E ( τ ) 0 T [ σ 2 | | u t | | Γ τ 2 + 3 2 σ | | u t | | Γ τ 2 + σ ( 1 2 + M 1 + ρ 1 2 ) | | Δ u | | Γ τ 2 ] d t + 0 T Γ τ u f ( u ) d s d t + σ M 2 C N ˜ ( p ) { 0 T Γ τ u f ( u ) d s d t + 0 T [ | | u t | | Γ τ 2 d t + | | Δ u | | Γ τ 2 + | | u t | | Γ τ 2 ] d t } p + 1 2 p .

Upon inserting (2.1) into the right hand side of (2.18), we may write an inequality in the form

E ( τ ) σ ( 5 2 + M 1 + ρ 1 2 ) E ( τ ) + σ M 2 C N ˜ ( p ) [ E ( τ ) ] p + 1 2 p . (2.19)

At this point, by the inequality (2.19), the function ψ ( z ) = α 1 z + α 2 z p + 1 2 p satisfies in the hypothesis of the Lemma. Therefore, we have proved the following theorem.

Theorem 1 Let u(x, t) be a nontrivial solution of (1.1) - (1.4) with hi(x', t) = 0, i = 1, 2 under the conditions (1.5) and (1.6). Then

lim inf τ + E ( τ ) τ p + 1 1 p > 0 , p ( 1 2 , 1 ) ,

and

lim inf τ + E ( τ ) exp ( τ c ) > 0 , p [ 1 , + ) ,

where

c = max { σ ( 5 2 + M 1 + ρ 1 2 ) , σ M 2 C N ˜ ( p ) } .

Theorem 2 Consider the equation (1.1) subject to the conditions u(x', 0, t) = h1(x', t) and u v ( x , 0 , t ) = h 2 ( x , t ) for x' ∈ Γ0. If E(+∞) is finite, then

lim τ + 0 T | | u t | | R τ 2 d t + 0 T | | u t | | R τ 2 d t + 0 T | | Δ u | | R τ 2 d t = 0 . (2.20)

proof By the same manner followed in theorem 1, it is easy to find the inequality

( a - δ ) 0 T | | u t | | R τ 2 d t + 0 T | | u t | | R τ 2 d t + δ 0 T | | Δ u | | R τ 2 d t 1 2 0 T | | u t | | Γ τ 2 d t + 3 2 + δ 2 0 T | | u t | | Γ τ 2 d t + [ 1 + δ ( 1 + λ τ - 1 + 1 2 λ τ - 2 ) ] 0 T | | Δ u | | Γ τ 2 d t ,

where λτ is the Poincaré constant. Choosing δ ∈ (0, a), η = min{a -δ, δ, 1} and

γ ̃ = η - 1 max { 3 2 + δ 2 , 1 + δ ( 1 + λ τ - 1 + 1 2 λ τ - 2 ) } ,

we obtain

( τ ) - γ ̃ ( τ ) , (2.21)

where

( τ ) = 0 T | | u t | | R τ 2 d t + 0 T | | u t | | R τ 2 d t + 0 T | | Δ u | | R τ 2 d t .

Thus, (2.20) follows from (2.21).   ■

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors' contributions

The authors declare that the work was realized in collaboration with the same responsibility. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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