Abstract
The longtime behavior of solution to extended FisherKolmogorov equation is considered in this article. Using an iteration procedure, regularity estimates for the linear semigroups and a classical existence theorem of global attractor, we prove that the extended FisherKolmogorov equation possesses a global attractor in Sobolev space H^{k }for all k > 0, which attracts any bounded subset of H^{k}(Ω) in the H^{k}norm.
2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 35B40; 35B41; 35K25; 35K30.
Keywords:
semigroup of operator; global attractor; extended FisherKolmogorov equation; regularity1 Introduction
This article is concerned with the following initialboundary problem of extended FisherKolmogorov equation involving an unknown function u = u(x, t):
where β > 0 is given, Δ is the Laplacian operator, and Ω denotes an open bounded set of R^{n}(n = 1, 2, 3) with smooth boundary ∂Ω.
The extended FisherKolmogorov equation proposed by Dee and Saarloos [13] in 19871988, which serves as a model in studies of pattern formation in many physical, chemical, or biological systems, also arises in the theory of phase transitions near Lifshitz points. The extended FisherKolmogorov equation (1.1) have extensively been studied during the last decades. In 19951998, Peletier and Troy [47] studied spatial patterns, the existence of kinds and stationary solutions of the extended FisherKolmogorov equation (1.1) in their articles. Van der Berg and Kwapisz [8,9] proved uniqueness of solutions for the extended FisherKolmogorov equation in 19982000. Tersian and Chaparova [10], Smets and Van den Berg [11], and Li [12] catch Periodic and homoclinic solution of Equation (1.1).
The global asymptotical behaviors of solutions and existence of global attractors are important for the study of the dynamical properties of general nonlinear dissipative dynamical systems. So, many authors are interested in the existence of global attractors such as Hale, Temam, among others [1323].
In this article, we shall use the regularity estimates for the linear semigroups, combining with the classical existence theorem of global attractors, to prove that the extended FisherKolmogorov equation possesses, in any kth differentiable function spaces H^{k}(Ω), a global attractor, which attracts any bounded set of H^{k}(Ω) in H^{k}norm. The basic idea is an iteration procedure which is from recent books and articles [2023].
2 Preliminaries
Let X and X_{1 }be two Banach spaces, X_{1 }⊂ X a compact and dense inclusion. Consider the abstract nonlinear evolution equation defined on X, given by
where u(t) is an unknown function, L: X_{1 }→ X a linear operator, and G: X_{1 }→ X a nonlinear operator.
A family of operators S(t): X → X(t ≥ 0) is called a semigroup generated by (2.1) if it satisfies the following properties:
(1) S(t): X → X is a continuous map for any t ≥ 0,
(2) S(0) = id: X → X is the identity,
(3) S(t + s) = S(t) · S(s), ∀t, s ≥ 0. Then, the solution of (2.1) can be expressed as
Next, we introduce the concepts and definitions of invariant sets, global attractors, and ωlimit sets for the semigroup S(t).
Definition 2.1 Let S(t) be a semigroup defined on X. A set Σ ⊂ X is called an invariant set of S(t) if S(t)Σ = Σ, ∀t ≥ 0. An invariant set Σ is an attractor of S(t) if Σ is compact, and there exists a neighborhood U ⊂ X of Σ such that for any u_{0 }∈ U,
In this case, we say that Σ attracts U. Especially, if Σ attracts any bounded set of X, Σ is called a global attractor of S(t) in X.
For a set D ⊂ X, we define the ωlimit set of D as follows:
where the closure is taken in the Xnorm. Lemma 2.1 is the classical existence theorem of global attractor by Temam [17].
Lemma 2.1 Let S(t): X → X be the semigroup generated by (2.1). Assume the following conditions hold:
(1) S(t) has a bounded absorbing set B ⊂ X, i.e., for any bounded set A ⊂ X there exists a time t_{A }≥ 0 such that S(t)u_{0 }∈ B, ∀u_{0 }∈ A and t > t_{A};
(2) S(t) is uniformly compact, i.e., for any bounded set U ⊂ X and some T > 0 sufficiently large, the set is compact in X.
Then the ωlimit set of B is a global attractor of (2.1), and is connected providing B is connected.
Note that we used to assume that the linear operator L in (2.1) is a sectorial operator which generates an analytic semigroup e^{tL}. It is known that there exists a constant λ ≥ 0 such that L  λI generates the fractional power operators and fractional order spaces X_{α }for α ∈ R^{1}, where . Without loss of generality, we assume that L generates the fractional power operators and fractional order spaces X_{α }as follows:
where is the domain of . By the semigroup theory of linear operators [24], we know that X_{β }⊂ X_{α }is a compact inclusion for any β > α.
Thus, Lemma 2.1 can equivalently be expressed in Lemma 2.2 [2023].
Lemma 2.2 Let u(t, u_{0}) = S(t)u_{0}(u_{0 }∈ X, t ≥ 0) be a solution of (2.1) and S(t) be the semigroup generated by (2.1). Let X_{α }be the fractional order space generated by L. Assume:
(1) for some α ≥ 0, there is a bounded set B ⊂ X_{α }such that for any u_{0 }∈ X_{α }there exists with
(2) there is a β > α, for any bounded set U ⊂ X_{β }there are T > 0 and C > 0 such that
Then, Equation (2.1) has a global attractor which attracts any bounded set of X_{α }in the X_{α}norm.
For Equation (2.1) with variational characteristic, we have the following existence theorem of global attractor [20,22].
Lemma 2.3 Let L: X_{1 }→ X be a sectorial operator, X_{α }= D((L)^{α}) and G: X_{α }→ X(0 < α < 1) be a compact mapping. If
(1) there is a functional F: X_{α }→ R such that DF = L + G and ,
then
(1) Equation (2.1) has a global solution
(2) Equation (2.1) has a global attractor which attracts any bounded set of X, where DF is a derivative operator of F, and β_{1}, β_{2}, C_{1}, C_{2 }are positive constants.
For sectorial operators, we also have the following properties which can be found in [24].
Lemma 2.4 Let L: X_{1 }→ X be a sectorial operator which generates an analytic semigroup T(t) = e^{tL}. If all eigenvalues λ of L satisfy Reλ < λ_{0 }for some real number λ_{0 }> 0, then for we have
(1) T(t): X → X_{α }is bounded for all α ∈ R^{1 }and t > 0,
(3) for each t > 0, is bounded, and
where δ > 0 and C_{α }> 0 are constants only depending on α,
(4) the X_{α}norm can be defined by
(5) if is symmetric, for any α, β ∈ R^{1 }we have
3 Main results
Let H and H_{1 }be the spaces defined as follows:
We define the operators L: H_{1 }→ H and G: H_{1 }→ H by
Thus, the extended FisherKolmogorov equation (1.1) can be written into the abstract form (2.1). It is well known that the linear operator L: H_{1 }→ H given by (3.2) is a sectorial operator and . The space D(L) = H_{1 }is the same as (3.1), is given by = closure of H_{1 }in H^{2}(Ω) and H_{k }= H^{2k}(Ω) ∩ H_{1 }for k ≥ 1.
Before the main result in this article is given, we show the following theorem, which provides the existence of global attractors of the extended FisherKolmogorov equation (1.1) in H.
Theorem 3.1 The extended FisherKolmogorov equation (1.1) has a global attractor in H and a global solution
Proof. Clearly, L = βΔ^{2 }+ Δ: H_{1 }→ H is a sectorial operator, and is a compact mapping.
which satisfies DI(u) = Lu + G(u).
which implies condition (1) of Lemma 2.3.
which implies condition (2) of Lemma 2.3.
This theorem follows from (3.3), (3.4), and Lemma 2.3.
The main result in this article is given by the following theorem, which provides the existence of global attractors of the extended FisherKolmogorov equation (1.1) in any kthorder space H_{k}.
Theorem 3.2 For any α ≥ 0 the extended FisherKolmogorov equation (1.1) has a global attractor in H_{α}, and attracts any bounded set of H_{α }in the H_{α}norm.
Proof. From Theorem 3.1, we know that the solution of system (1.1) is a global weak solution for any φ ∈ H. Hence, the solution u(t, φ) of system (1.1) can be written as
Next, according to Lemma 2.2, we prove Theorem 3.2 in the following five steps.
Step 1. We prove that for any bounded set there is a constant C > 0 such that the solution u(t, φ) of system (1.1) is uniformly bounded by the constant C for any φ ∈ U and t ≥ 0. To do that, we firstly check that system (1.1) has a global Lyapunov function as follows:
In fact, if u(t, ·) is a strong solution of system (1.1), we have
By (3.2) and (3.6), we get
Hence, it follows from (3.7) and (3.8) that
which implies that (3.6) is a Lyapunov function.
Integrating (3.9) from 0 to t gives
Using (3.6), we have
Combining with (3.10) yields
which implies
where C_{1}, C_{2}, and C are positive constants, and C only depends on φ.
Step 2. We prove that for any bounded set there exists C > 0 such that
which implies that is bounded.
Hence, it follows from (2.2) and (3.5) that
where β = α(0 < β < 1). Hence, (3.12) holds.
Step 3. We prove that for any bounded set there exists C > 0 such that
In fact, by the embedding theorems of fractional order spaces [24]:
we have
which implies
Therefore, it follows from (3.12) and (3.14) that
Then, using same method as that in Step 2, we get from (3.15) that
Step 4. We prove that for any bounded set U ⊂ H_{α}(α ≥ 0) there exists C > 0 such that
In fact, by the embedding theorems of fractional order spaces [24]:
we have
which implies
Therefore, it follows from (3.13) and (3.17) that
Then, we get from (3.18) that
where β = α  1(0 < β < 1). Hence, (3.16) holds.
By doing the same procedures as Steps 14, we can prove that (3.16) holds for all α ≥ 0.
Step 5. We show that for any α ≥ 0, system (1.1) has a bounded absorbing set in H_{α}. We first consider the case of .
From Theorem 3.1 we have known that the extended FisherKolmogorov equation possesses a global attractor in H space, and the global attractor of this equation consists of equilibria with their stable and unstable manifolds. Thus, each trajectory has to converge to a critical point. From (3.9) and (3.16), we deduce that for any the solution u(t, φ) of system (1.1) converges to a critical point of F. Hence, we only need to prove the following two properties:
Property (1) is obviously true, we now prove (2) in the following. It is easy to check if DF(u) = 0, u is a solution of the following equation
Taking the scalar product of (3.19) with u, then we derive that
Using Hölder inequality and the above inequality, we have
where C > 0 is a constant. Thus, property (2) is proved.
Now, we show that system (1.1) has a bounded absorbing set in H_{α }for any , i.e., for any bounded set U ⊂ H_{α }there are T > 0 and a constant C > 0 independent of φ such that
From the above discussion, we know that (3.20) holds as . By (3.5) we have
Let be the bounded absorbing set of system (1.1), and T_{0 }> 0 such that
It is well known that
where λ_{1 }> 0 is the first eigenvalue of the equation
Hence, for any given T > 0 and . We have
From (3.21),(3.22) and Lemma 2.4, for any we get that
where C > 0 is a constant independent of φ.
Then, we infer from (3.23) and (3.24) that (3.20) holds for all . By the iteration method, we have that (3.20) holds for all .
Finally, this theorem follows from (3.16), (3.20) and Lemma 2.2. The proof is completed.
Competing interests
The author declares that they have no competing interests.
Acknowledgements
The author is very grateful to the anonymous referees whose careful reading of the manuscript and valuable comments enhanced presentation of the manuscript. Foundation item: the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11071177).
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