In this paper, we study the existence of figure "∞"-type periodic solution for 3-body problems with strong-force potentials and two fixed centers, and we also give some remarks in the case with Newtonian weak-force potentials.
Mathematical Subject Classification 2000: 34C15; 34C25; 70F10.
Keywords:3-body problems with two fixed centers; "∞"-type solutions; Lagrangian actions
1 Introduction and Main Result
We assume two masses are fixed at and , the third mass m3 is affected by m1 and m2 and moving according to the Newton's second law and the general gravitational law [1,2], then the position q(t) for m3 satisfies
Here we want to use variational minimizing method to look for periodic solution for m3 which winds around q1 and q2, let
Theorem 1.1 For α ≥ 2, the minimizer of f(q) on does exist and is non-collision "∞"-type periodic solution of (1.1)-(1.3).(See Figure 1)
Figure 1. Figure-eight with 2-centres.
2 The Proof of Theorem 1.1
Using Palais'S symmetrical Principle , it's easy to prove the following variational Lemma:
Lemma 2.1 The critical point of f(q) in Λ is the noncollision periodic solution winding around q1 counter-clockwise and q2 clockwise one time during one period.
Lemma 2.2  If x ∈ W1,2 (ℝ/ℤ, ℝ2) and ∃ t0 ∈ [0,1], s.t. x(t0) = 0, if α ≥ 2 and a > 0, then
It's easy to see
Proof. By q(-t) = -q(t) and q(t) ∈ W1,2(ℝ/ℤ, ℝ2), we have . By Wirtinger's inequality, we know f(q) is coercive. By Sobolev's embedding Theorem and Fatou's Lemma, f is weakly lower-semi-continuous on the weakly closed set of W1,2.
Lemma 2.5  Let X be a reflexive Banach space,M ⊂ X be weakly closed subset,f : M → R be weakly lower semi-continous and coercive (f(x) → +∞ as ∥x∥ → +∞), then f attains its infimum on M.
The most interesting case α = 1 is the case for Newtonian potential, we try to prove the minimizer is collision-free, but it seems very difficult, here we give some remarks.
Lemma 2.6  If y(0) = 0 and 2k is an even positive integer, then
There is equality only for a certain hyperelliptic curve.
If q(t) collides with q1 at some moment t0 ∈ [0,1], without loss of generality, we assume t0 = 0, then q(0) - q1 = 0, we let x(t) = q(t) - q1, y(t) = |x(t)|, then x(0) = 0,y(0) = 0. By Jensen's inequality and Hardy-Littlewood-pólya inequality , we have
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors would like to thank the anonymous referees for their valuable suggestions which improve this work. This work was supported by Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan Provincial Education Department (11ZA172).
Gordon, W: A minimizing property of Keplerian orbits. Am J Math. 99, 961–971 (1977). Publisher Full Text
Euler, M: Probleme un corps etant attire en raison reciproque quarree des distances vers deux points fixes donnes trouver les cas ou la courbe decrite par ce corps sera algebrique. Hist Acad R Sci Bell Lett Berlin. 2, 228–249 (1767)
Palais, R: The principle of symmetric criticality. Commun Math Phys. 69, 19–30 (1979). Publisher Full Text