Abstract
The second order of accuracy difference scheme generated by CrankNicholson difference scheme for approximately solving multipoint nonlocal boundary value problem is considered. Wellposedness of this difference scheme in Hölder spaces is established. Furthermore, as applications, coercivity estimates in Hölder norms for approximate solutions of the multipoint nonlocal boundary value problems for mixed type equations are obtained. Moreover, the method is illustrated by numerical examples.
Keywords:
difference scheme; ellipticparabolic equation; wellposedness1 Introduction
In recent years, more and more mathematicians have been studying nonlocal problems for ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations because of their existence in many applied problems included in applied sciences. Theory and numerical methods of solutions of the nonlocal boundary value problems for these partial differential equations were investigated by many researchers (see, e.g., [113] and the references therein). Several types of problems in fluid mechanics, other areas of physics, and mathematical biology led to partial differential equations of ellipticparabolic type (see, [1418]). The purpose of this paper is to study the second order of accuracy difference schemes of ellipticparabolic problem with nonlocal boundary value problems.
In [19], we established the wellposedness of multipoint nonlocal boundary value problem
in a Hilbert space H with the selfadjoint positive definite operator A under assumption
The wellposedness of multipoint nonlocal boundary value problem (1) in Hölder spaces with a weight was established. In applications, coercivity inequalities for the solutions of nonlocal boundary value problems for ellipticparabolic equations were obtained.
In [20], we studied the wellposedness of the first order of accuracy difference scheme for the approximate solution of boundary value problem (1) under assumption (2).
In the present paper, we consider the second order of accuracy difference scheme generated by CrankNicholson difference scheme
for the approximate solution of boundary value problem (1) under assumption (2).
The wellposedness of difference scheme (3) in Hölder spaces is established. In applications, the stability, almost coercivity stability, coercivity stability estimates for solutions of the second order of accuracy difference scheme for ellipticparabolic equations are obtained. Furthermore, the theoretical statements for the solution of the first and second order of accuracy schemes for onedimensional ellipticparabolic differential equation are supported by the results of a numerical example.
2 Main theorems
Let us give some auxiliary lemmas we need below. Throughout the paper, H is a Hilbert space and we denote
and
exist and are bounded for a selfadjoint positive operator A. Here,
and I is the identity operator.
Lemma 2.1For any
Proof Clearly, the solution formula of the problem
is [22]:
for any
The solution of the problem
satisfies the following formula [21]:
Equation (5) follows from Equations (9) and (11), initial condition
Finally, let us obtain formula (7). Combining (5), (6), and the condition
we get
From Equation (4), it follows that
This finishes the proof of Lemma 2.1. □
Here, we study wellposedness of problem (3). First, we give some necessary estimates
for
Lemma 2.2For a selfadjoint positive operatorAthe following estimates are satisfied[21,22,24]:
where
From these estimates, it follows that
Now, we study wellposedness of problem (3). Let
Theorem 2.1Nonlocal boundary value problem (3) is stable in
Proof By [21], we have
for the solution of boundary value problem (10).
By [22], we have
for the solution of inverse Cauchy difference problem (8).
Then, the proof of Theorem 2.1 is based on stability inequalities (14), (15), and on estimates
for the solution of boundary value problem (3). Estimates (16) and (17) follow from formula (7) and estimates (12), (13). Theorem 2.1 is proved. □
Theorem 2.2Assume that
where
Proof By [24], we have
for the solution of inverse Cauchy difference problem (8).
By [21], we have
for the solution of boundary value problem (10). Then, the proof of Theorem 2.2 is based on almost coercivity inequalities (18), (19), and on the estimates
for the solution of boundary value problem (3). The proof of these estimates follows the scheme of papers [21,24] and relies on both formula (7) and estimates (12), (13). This finalizes the proof of Theorem 2.2. □
Theorem 2.3Let the assumptions of Theorem 2.2 be satisfied. Then, boundary value problem (3) is wellposed in Hölder spaces
whereMis independent of
Proof By [24],
for the solution of inverse Cauchy difference problem (8).
By [21], we have
for the solution of boundary value problem (10). Then, the proof of Theorem 2.3 is based on coercivity inequalities (20)(22) and estimates
for the solution of difference scheme (3). The proof of these estimates follows the scheme of the papers [21,24] and relies on both formula (7) and estimates (12), (13). This is the end of the proof of Theorem 2.3. □
3 Application
Now, the application of the abstract result is considered. In
where
The discretization of problem (23) is carried out in two steps. In the first step, the grid sets
are defined. To the differential operator A generated by problem (23), we assign the difference operator
acting in the space of grid functions
for an infinite system of ordinary differential equations (see [21]).
Secondly, problem (25) is replaced by difference scheme (3), so that the following second order of accuracy difference scheme
To formulate the results, we introduce the spaces
and
Theorem 3.1Letτand
whereMis independent not only ofτ, h,
The proof of Theorem 3.1 is based on Theorem 2.1, Theorem 2.2, the symmetry properties
of the difference operator
and the following theorem in
Theorem 3.2For the solution of the elliptic difference problem
the following coercivity inequality holds[23]:
HereMis independent ofhand
Theorem 3.3Letτand
Here, Mis independent not only ofτ, h,
The proof of Theorem 3.3 is based on the abstract Theorem 2.3, Theorem 3.2, and the
symmetry properties of the difference operator
4 Numerical Analysis
The theoretical statements for the solution of these difference schemes are supported by the results of numerical experiments of the nonlocal boundary value problem
for the ellipticparabolic equation. The exact solution of this problem is
For the comparison, the errors computed by the following formula
are recorded for different values of N and M, where
Table 1. Error analysis for the solution
Therefore, the results indicate that the second order of accuracy difference scheme is more accurate than the first order of accuracy difference scheme.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions
The manuscript was drafted by OG and it is based on his PhD thesis. AA is the supervisor of the thesis and gave detailed comments on the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Acknowledgement
The authors are very grateful to Prof. P. E. Sobolevskii (Jerusalem, Israel) for valuable comments to the improvement of this article.
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