Abstract
In this paper, a nonlocal initial value problem to a pLaplacian equation on time scales is studied. The existence of solutions for such a problem is obtained by using the topological degree method.
Keywords:
existence; pLaplacian; time scales; topological degree1 Introduction
In this paper, we are concerned with the existence of solutions of the following nonlocal pLaplacian dynamic equation on a time scale :
with integral initial value
where is the pLaplace operator defined by , , with q the Hölder conjugate of p, i.e., , , , is continuous ( denotes positive real numbers), is left dense continuous, and A is a real constant.
This model arises in ohmic heating phenomena, which occur in shear bands of metals which are deformed at high strain rates [1,2], in the theory of gravitational equilibrium of polytropic stars [3], in the investigation of the fully turbulent behavior of real flows, using invariant measures for the Euler equation [4], in modeling aggregation of cells via interaction with a chemical substance (chemotaxis) [5]. For the onedimensional case, problems with the nonlocal initial condition appear in the investigation of diffusion phenomena for a small amount of gas in a transparent tube [6,7]; nonlocal initial value problems in higher dimension are important from the point of view of their practical applications to modeling and investigating of pollution processes in rivers and seas, which are caused by sewage [8].
The study of dynamic equations on time scales has led to some important applications [911], and an amount of literature has been devoted to the study the existence of solutions of secondorder nonlinear boundary value problems (e.g., see [1218]).
Motivated by the above works, in this paper, we study the existence of solutions to Problem (1.1), (1.2). Compared with the works mentioned above, this article has the following new features: firstly, the main technique used in this paper is the topological degree method; secondly, Problem (1.1), (1.2) involves the integral initial condition.
The paper is organized as follows. We introduce some necessary definitions and lemmas in the rest of this section. In Section 2, we provide some necessary preliminaries, and in Section 3, the main results are stated and proved.
Definition 1.1 For and , define the forward jump operator σ and the backward jump operator ρ, respectively,
for all . If , t is said to be right scattered, and if , r is said to be left scattered. If , t is said to be right dense, and if , r is said to be left dense. If has a right scattered minimum m, define ; otherwise, set . If has a left scattered maximum M, define ; otherwise, set .
Definition 1.2 For and , we define the delta derivative of , , to be the number (when it exists) with the property that for any , there is a neighborhood U of t such that
for all . For and , we define the nabla derivative of , , to be the number (when it exists) with the property that for any , there is a neighborhood V of t such that
Definition 1.3 If , then we define the delta integral by
If , then we define the nabla integral by
Throughout this paper, we assume that is a nonempty closed subset of ℝ with , .
Lemma 1.1 (Alternative theorem)
Suppose thatXis a Banach space andAis a completely continuous operator fromXto X. Then for any, only one of the following statements holds:
(i) For any, there exists a unique, such that
(ii) There exists an, , such that
2 Preliminaries
Let be a Banach space equipped with the maximum norm .
Consider the following problem:
Integrating Eq. (2.1) from 0 to t, one obtains
Using the initial condition (2.2), we have
Integrating the above equality from 0 to t again, we obtain
then (2.3) can be rewritten as
Thus, is a solution to (2.1), (2.2) if and only if it is a solution to (2.4).
Lemma 2.1is a Fredholm operator.
Proof To prove that is a Fredholm operator, we need only to show that K is completely continuous.
It is easy to see from the definition of K that K is a bounded linear operator from to . Obviously, . So, K is a completely continuous operator. This completes the proof. □
Lemma 2.2Problem (2.1), (2.2) admits a unique solution.
Proof Since Problem (2.1), (2.2) is equivalent to Problem (2.4), we need only to show that Problem (2.4) has a unique solution.
Using Lemma 2.1 and the alternative theorem, it is sufficient to prove that
On the contrary, suppose (2.5) has a nontrivial solution μ, then μ is a constant, and we have
The definition of K and the above equality yield
which is a contradiction to the assumptions and .
Thus, we complete the proof. □
3 Main results
Throughout this section, we assume that the following conditions hold.
(H3) is left dense continuous and ;
From Lemma 2.2 we know that is a solution to Problem (1.1), (1.2) if and only if it is a solution to the following integral equation:
then (3.1) can be rewritten as
In order to prove the existence of solutions to (3.1), we need the following lemmas.
Lemma 3.1Fis completely continuous.
Proof Let be an arbitrary positive real number and denote . Then we have for any ,
This shows that is uniformly bounded.
Thus, it is easy to prove that is equicontinuous. This together with the AscoliArzelà theorem guarantees that is relatively compact in .
Therefore, F is completely continuous. The proof of Lemma 3.1 is completed. □
Theorem 3.1Assume that conditions (H1)(H5) hold. Then Problem (1.1), (1.2) has at least one solution.
Proof Lemma 2.1 and Lemma 3.1 imply that the operator is completely continuous. It suffices for us to prove that the equation
has at least one solution.
and it is clear that H is completely continuous.
To apply the LeraySchauder degree to , we need only to show that there exists a ball in , whose radius R will be fixed later, such that .
If , choosing , then for any fixed , there exists a such that . By direct calculation, we have
From (H4), we have
If , choosing , then for any fixed , there exists a such that . From (H5), we have
If , choosing , then for any fixed , there exists a such that . By direct calculation, we have
This implies and hence we obtain .
Since , we know that (3.2) admits a solution , which implies that (1.1), (1.2) also admits a solution in . □
Competing interests
All authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions
WS dfafted this paper and WG checked and corrected the manuscript.
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by NSFC (11271154) and by Key Lab of Symbolic Computation and Knowledge Engineering of Ministry of Education and by the 985 program of Jilin University, and the first author is also supported by the Youth Studies Program of Jilin University of Finance and Economics (XJ2012006).
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