Abstract
In this paper, we show the convergence rate of a solution toward the stationary solution to the initial boundary value problem for the onedimensional bipolar compressible NavierStokesPoisson equations. For the supersonic flow at spatial infinity, if an initial perturbation decays with the algebraic or the exponential rate in the spatial asymptotic point, the solution converges to the corresponding stationary solution with the same rate in time as time tends to infinity. For the transonic flow at spatial infinity, the solution converges to the stationary solution in time with the lower rate than that of the initial perturbation in the spatial. These results are proved by the weighted energy method.
MSC: 35M31, 35Q35.
Keywords:
convergence rate; NavierStokesPoisson equation; stationary wave; weighted energy method1 Introduction
In this paper, we are concerned with the following bipolar NavierStokesPoisson equations:
in a onedimensional half space . Here the unknown functions are the densities , the velocities (), and the electron field E. () is the pressure depending only on the density. () is viscosity coefficient. Throughout this paper, we assume that two fluids of electrons and ions have the same equation of state with for and , and also they have the same viscosity coefficients . The bipolar NavierStokesPoisson system is used to simulate the transport of charged particles (e.g., electrons and ions). It consists of the compressible NavierStokes equation of twofluid under the influence of the electrostatic potential force governed by the selfconsisted Poisson equation. Note that when we only consider one particle in the fluids, we also have the unipolar NavierStokesPoisson equations. For more details, we can refer to [14].
Recently, some important progress was made for the compressible unipolar NavierStokesPoisson system. The local and/or global existence of a renormalized weak solution for the Cauchy problem of the multidimensional compressible NavierStokesPoisson system were proved in [57]. Chan [8] also considered the nonexistence of global weak solutions to the NavierStokesPoisson equations in . Hao and Li [9] established the global strong solutions of the initial value problem for the multidimensional compressible NavierStokesPoisson system in a Besov space. The global existence and decay rate of the smooth solution of the initial value problem for the compressible NavierStokesPoisson system in were achieved by Li and his collaborators in [10,11]. The pointwise estimates of the smooth solutions for the threedimensional isentropic compressible NavierStokesPoisson equation were obtained in [12]. The quasineutral limit of the compressible NavierStokesPoisson system was studied in [1315]. However, the results about the bipolar NavierStokesPoisson equations are very few. Lastly, Li et al.[16] showed the global existence and asymptotic behavior of smooth solutions for the initial value problem of the bipolar NavierStokesPoisson equations. Duan and Yang [17] studied the unique existence and asymptotic stability of a stationary solution for the initial boundary value problem, and they showed that the largetime behavior of solutions for the bipolar NavierStokesPoisson equations coincided with the one for the single NavierStokes system in the absence of the electric field. The consistency is also observed and proved between the bipolar EulerPoisson system and the single damped Euler equation; for example, see [1820] and the references therein.
In this paper, we are going to discuss the initialboundary value problem for the onedimensional bipolar NavierStokesPoisson equations. Now we give the initial condition
and the boundary date
Here, we suppose and further the compatibility condition . Moreover, for the unique existence, we also assume
In [17], the authors showed that the solution to (1.1)(1.4) converges to the corresponding stationary solution of the single NavierStokes system in the absence of the electric field
as time tends to infinity. Then, let be the stationary solution to the system (1.5). We know that the stationary solution satisfies
and the boundary and spatial asymptotic conditions
In this paper, we are mainly concerned with the decay rate of solutions to (1.1)(1.4) toward the stationary solution . Now we state the main result in the following theorem.
Theorem 1.1Suppose thatandhold. The initial datais supposed to satisfy
and there exists a positive constantsuch that
(i) When, in addition, the initial data also satisfies, , , , for a certain positive constantα, then the solutionto (1.1)(1.3) satisfies the decay estimate
On the other hand, if the initial data satisfies, , , , for a certain positive constantζ, then there exists a positive constantαsuch that the solutionto (1.1)(1.3) satisfies
(ii) When, and there exists a positive constantsuch that if the initial data also satisfiesfor a certain constantαsatisfying, whereis a constant defined by
then the solutionto (1.1)(1.3) satisfies
where, andδare defined in Section 2, and.
Notations Throughout this paper, denotes the generic positive constant independent of time. () denotes the space of measurable functions with the finite norm , and is the space of bounded measurable functions on ℝ with the norm . We use to denote the norm. () stands for the space of functions f whose derivatives (in the sense of distribution) () are also functions with the norm . Moreover, () denotes the space of the ktimes continuously differentiable functions on the interval with values in .
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we review the results of the stationary solution and the nonstationary solutions, then we reformulate our problem. Finally, we give the a priori estimates for the cases and in Section 3 and 4, respectively.
2 Stationary solution and global existence of nonstationary solution
In this section we mainly review the property of a stationary solution, and the unique existence and asymptotic behavior of nonstationary solutions for (1.1)(1.3). To begin with, we recall the stationary equation
with
Integrating (2.1)_{1} over yields , which implies by letting , . Namely, (, ), which together with (2.1) implies
Thus, the condition has to be assumed whenever the outflow problem, i.e., the case , is consider. Moreover, let the strength of the boundary layer be measured by . Finally, we also define as follows:
and denote the Mach number at infinity . Then one has the following lemma.
Assume that the condition (2.3) holds. The boundary problem (2.1)(2.2) has a smooth solution, if and only ifand. Moreover, if, there exist two positive constantsλandCsuch that the stationary solutionsatisfies the estimate
If, the stationary solutionsatisfies
As to the stability of the stationary solution of (1.1)(1.4), Duan and Yang showed the following results in [17].
Lemma 2.2 (see [17])
Suppose thatandhold. In addition, the initial datais supposed to satisfy
Then there exists a positive constantsuch that if
the initial boundary value problem (1.1)(1.3) has a unique solutionfor arbitrary. Moreover, the solutionconverges to the stationary solutionas time tends to infinity:
Here the solution spaceis defined by
Finally, to enclose this section, we reformulate the original problem in terms of the perturbed variables. Set from the stationary solution as
Due to (1.1) and (1.6), we have the system of equations for as
where the nonlinear terms () and () are given by
The initial and boundary condition to (2.7) are derived from (1.2), (1.3) and (1.4) as follows:
The uniform bound of the solutions in the weighted Sobolev space is derived later in Sections 3 and 4. For this purpose, we introduce the function spaces and defined by
and
Here the two types of weight functions are considered: , or . Also, we use the norms , , and defined by
The following lemma, concerning the existence of the solution locally in time, is proved by the standard iteration method. Hence we omit the proof.
Lemma 2.3If the initial data satisfies (1.8) and, there exists a positive constantTsuch that the initial boundary value problem (2.7)(2.9) has a unique solution. Moreover, if the initial data satisfies (1.8), (1.9) andand, there exists a unique solutionin.
3 A priori estimates for
In this section, we derive the a priori estimates of the solution for the case that holds in some Sobolev space. To summarize the a priori estimate, we use the following notation (see [23]) for a weight function :
Proposition 3.1Suppose that the same assumptions as in Theorem 1.1 hold.
(i) (Algebraic decay) Suppose thatis a solution to (2.7)(2.9) for certain positive constantsαandT. Then there exist positive constantsandCsuch that if, then the solutionsatisfies the estimate
(ii) (Exponential decay) Suppose thatis a solution to (2.7)(2.9) for certain positive constantsζandT. Then there exist positive constants, C, β (<ζ) andαsatisfyingsuch that if, then the solutionsatisfies the estimate
For the sake of clarity, we divide the proof of Proposition 4.1 into the following lemmas. We first derive the basic energy estimate.
Lemma 3.2Suppose that the same assumptions as in Theorem 1.1 hold. Then there exists a positive constantsuch that, it holds that
Proof From (2.7), a direct computation yields
here
Owing to Lemmas 2.1 and 2.2, we see that the energy form is equivalent to . That is, there exist positive constants c and C such that
We also have positive bounds of () as
Further, multiplying (3.4) by a weight function , we have
Due to the boundary conditions (1.3) and (2.9), the integration of the second term on the lefthand side of (3.7) over
where we have used the estimates (3.5) and (3.6). Next, can be computed as
with
and
The conditions and yield that the quadratic form is positive definite since
which yields
Using (2.5), (3.5) and the inequalities , for , we have the estimate for as
which implies
Moreover, the positive bound of (), (3.6) and the Schwarz inequality yield the estimate for as
then we have
Therefore, integrating (3.7) over , substituting the above inequalities (3.8)(3.12) into the resultant equality and then taking suitably small, we obtain the desired estimate (3.3). □
Next, we obtain the estimate for the firstorder derivatives of the solution for (2.7)(2.9). As the existence of the higherorder derivatives of the solution is not supposed, we need to use the difference quotient for the rigorous derivation of the higherorder estimates. Since the argument using the difference quotient is similar to that in the paper [21,22], we omit the details and proceed with the proof as if it verifies
Lemma 3.3There exists a positive constantsuch that if, then
Proof By differentiating the first and third equations of (2.7) in x, and then multiplying them by and , respectively, one has for ,
which yields
with . On the other hand, multiplying the second and fourth equations of (2.7) by and , respectively, gives
Further, we have
here
Combining (3.14) and (3.15), we have
The second term on the righthand side of (3.16) can be rewritten as
Under the assumption (3.6) on the densities, it holds that
Moreover, owing to the Schwarz inequality with the aid of (2.5), is estimated as
Similarly, we have
Multiplying (3.16) by a weight function , we get
The boundary condition (2.9) gives
and
Integrating (3.20) over , substituting (3.17), (3.18), (3.19), (3.21), (3.22) and the estimate
which is proved by the similar computation as in [2124], in the resultant equality, and take ε and δ suitably small. These computations together with (3.3) give the desired estimate (3.13). □
Lemma 3.4There exists a positive constantsuch that if, then
Proof Multiplying (2.7)_{2} by , and (2.7)_{4} by , respectively, we have for ,
which yields
with
Note that , and the function is estimated by using (2.5) and Schwarz inequality as
where ε is an arbitrary positive constant and is a positive constant depending on ε. Then, multiplying (3.25) by a weight function , we get
Integrate (3.27) over , substitute (3.26) as well as the estimate
and
in the resultant equality, and take ε suitably small. These computations together with (3.3), (3.13) and (3.23) give the desired estimate (3.24). □
Proof of Proposition 3.1 Summing up the estimates (3.3), (3.13) and (3.24) and taking suitably small, we have
First, we prove the estimate (3.1). Noting the Poincarétype inequality (3.23), and substituting and in (3.28) for and gives
Therefore, applying an induction to (3.29) gives the desired estimate (3.1). Since this computation is similar those in [23,25], we omit the details.
Next, we prove the estimate (3.2). Substitute and in (3.28) for to obtain
Here, we have used the Poincarétype inequality (3.23) again. Thus, taking δ, β and α suitably small, we obtain the desired a priori estimate (3.2). □
4 A priori estimate for
In the section we proceed to consider the transonic case . To state the a priori estimate of the solution precisely, here we use the notations:
Proposition 4.1Suppose that the same assumption as in Theorem 1.1 holds. Suppose thatis a solution to (2.7)(2.9) for certain positive constantsαandT. Then there exist positive constantsandCsuch that if, then the solutionsatisfies the estimate
In order to prove Proposition 4.1, we need to get a lower estimate for and the Mach number on the stationary solution defined by .
Lemma 4.2 (see [23])
The stationary solutionsatisfies
for. Moreover, there exists a positive constantCsuch that
Based on Lemma 4.2, we obtain the weighted estimate of .
Lemma 4.3There exists a positive constantsuch that if, then
Proof First, from (2.7), similar as (3.4), we also have
Notice that from the second and fourth equations of (1.1), one has
which implies
Plugging the above equality into (4.3), we arrive at
where
Further, multiplying (4.4) by a weight function , we have
and
By the same computation as in deriving (3.9), we rewrite the terms and to , with
and
By utilizing Lemma 4.2 with the aid of the fact that and , we obtain the lower estimate of as
for . On the other hand, the estimates (2.6), (3.5) and (3.6) yield
For the first term on the righthand side of (4.5), we estimate it as
Similarly, we get
In the same way, we estimate and as follows:
and
Moreover, it is easy to compute , which implies
Finally, integrate (4.5) over , substitute (4.6)(4.13) in the resultant equality, and take and δ suitably small. This procedure yields the desired estimate (4.2) for .
Next, we prove (4.2) for . Substituting in (4.5) and integrating the resultant equality over , we get
Here, we have used the fact that holds. Therefore, we obtain the estimate (4.2) for the case of . □
In order to complete the proof of Proposition 4.1, we need to obtain the weighted estimate of .
Lemma 4.4There exists a positive constantsuch that if, then forand,
Proof Since the derivation of the estimate (4.14) is similar to that of (3.13) and (3.24), we only give the outline of the proof. Multiplying (3.16) by , we have
Integrating (4.15) over and substituting (4.2) gives the estimate for and as
Here, we have used the inequalities
and
where ε is an arbitrary positive constant. We note that the third term on the righthand side of the above inequality is estimated by applying the Poincarétype inequality (3.23) for the case of .
Next, we prove the estimate for . Multiply (3.25) by to get
Integrate (4.17) in and substitute (4.2) and (4.16) in the resultant equality with the inequalities
and
This procedure yields
Finally, adding (4.16) to (4.18) and taking suitably small give the desired estimate (4.14). □
By the same inductive argument as in deriving (4.1), we can prove Proposition 4.1, which immediately yields the decay estimate (1.12).
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions
All authors typed, read and approved the final manuscript.
Acknowledgements
The research of Li is partially supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11171223) and the Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (Grant No. 13ZZ109).
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