##### Boundary Value Problems
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# Existence and uniqueness of solutions for fourth-order periodic boundary value problems under two-parameter nonresonance conditions

He Yang1*, Yue Liang2 and Pengyu Chen1

### Author affiliations

1 Department of Mathematics, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, People’s Republic of China

2 Science College, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, 730070, People’s Republic of China

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### Citation and License

Boundary Value Problems 2013, 2013:14  doi:10.1186/1687-2770-2013-14

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.boundaryvalueproblems.com/content/2013/1/14

 Received: 16 December 2012 Accepted: 18 January 2013 Published: 4 February 2013

© 2013 Yang et al.; licensee Springer

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

### Abstract

This paper deals with the existence and uniqueness of solutions of the fourth-order periodic boundary value problem

where is continuous. Under two-parameter nonresonance conditions described by rectangle and ellipse, some existence and uniqueness results are obtained by using fixed point theorems. These results improve and extend some existing results.

MSC: 34B15.

##### Keywords:
existence; uniqueness; two-parameter nonresonance condition; equivalent norm

### 1 Introduction and main results

In mathematics, the equilibrium state of an elastic beam is described by fourth-order boundary value problems. According to the difference of supported condition on both ends, it brings out various fourth-order boundary value problems; see [1]. In this paper, we deal with the periodic boundary value problem (PBVP) of the fourth-order ordinary differential equation

(1)

(2)

where is continuous. PBVP (1)-(2) models the deformations of an elastic beam in equilibrium state with a periodic boundary condition. Owing to its importance in physics, the existence of solutions to this problem has been studied by many authors; see [2-6].

Throughout this paper, we denote that , , , , . In [7-10], authors showed the existence of solutions to Eq. (1) under the boundary condition

(3)

At first, the existence of a solution to two-point boundary value problem (BVP) (1)-(3) was studied by Aftabizadeh in [7] under the restriction that f is a bounded function. Then, under the following growth condition:

Yang in [[8], Theorem 1] extended Aftabizadeh’s result and showed the existence to BVP (1)-(3). Later, Del Pino and Manasevich in [9] further extended the result of Aftabizadeh and Yang in [7,8] and obtained the following existence theorem.

Theorem AAssume that the pairsatisfies

(4)

and that there are positive constantsa, b, andcsuch that

(5)

andfsatisfies the growth condition

Then BVP (1)-(3) possesses at least one solution.

Condition (4)-(5) trivially implies that

(6)

It is easy to prove that condition (6) is equivalent to the fact that the rectangle

does not intersect any of the eigenlines of the two-parameter linear eigenvalue problem corresponding to BVP (1)-(3).

In [2], Ma applied Theorem A to PBVP (1)-(2) successfully and obtained the following existence theorem.

Theorem BAssume that the pairsatisfies

(7)

and that there are positive constantsa, b, andcsuch that

(8)

andfsatisfies the growth condition

(9)

Then PBVP (1)-(2) has at least one solution.

Condition (7)-(9) concerns a nonresonance condition involving the two-parameter linear eigenvalue problem (LEVP)

(10)

In [2], it has been proved that is an eigenvalue pair of LEVP (10) if and only if , . Hence, for each , the straight line

is called an eigenline of LEVP (10). Condition (7)-(8) trivially implies that

(11)

It is easy to prove that condition (11) is equivalent to the fact that the rectangle does not intersect any of the eigenline of LEVP (10). Hence, we call (11) and (9) the two-parameter nonresonance condition described by rectangle, which is a direct extension from a single-parameter nonresonance condition to a two-parameter one.

The purpose of this paper is to improve and extend the above-mentioned results. Different from the two-parameter nonresonance condition described by rectangle, we will present new two-parameter nonresonance conditions described by ellipse and circle. Under these nonresonance conditions, we obtain several existence and uniqueness theorems.

The main results are as follows.

Theorem 1Assume that the pairsatisfies (7). If there exist positive constantsa, b, andcsuch that (11) and

(12)

hold, then PBVP (1)-(2) has at least one solution.

When the partial derivatives and exist, if is large enough such that

(13)

where is a certain ellipse, and the corresponding close rectangle satisfies

(14)

by the theorem of differential mean value, we easily see that (7), (11), and (12) hold. Hence, by Theorem 1, we have the following corollary.

Corollary 1Assume that the partial derivativesandexist in. If there exists an ellipsesuch that (13) holds for a positive real numberlarge enough, and the corresponding close rectanglesatisfies (14), then PBVP (1)-(2) has at least one solution.

Condition (11) is weaker than condition (8), but condition (12) is stronger than condition (9). Hence, Theorem 1 and Corollary 1 partly improve Theorem B.

In the nonresonance condition of Theorem 1, condition (11) can be weakened as

(15)

In this case, we have the following results.

Theorem 2Assume that the pairsatisfies (7). If there exist positive constantsa, b, andcsuch that (12) and (15) hold, then PBVP (1)-(2) has at least one solution.

Condition (15) is equivalent to the fact that

(16)

Condition (16) indicates that the ellipse does not intersect any of the eigenline of LEVP (10). Hence, we call (15) and (12) the two-parameter nonresonance condition described by ellipse, which is another extension of a single-parameter nonresonance condition. Similar to Corollary 1, we have the following corollary.

Corollary 2Assume that the partial derivativesandexist in. If there exists an ellipsesuch that (13) and (16) hold for a positive real numberlarge enough, then PBVP (1)-(2) has at least one solution.

Theorem 3Assume that the partial derivativesandexist in. If there exists an ellipsesuch that (16) and

(17)

hold, then PBVP (1)-(2) has a unique solution.

In Theorem 2, Theorem 3, and Corollary 2, we present a new two-parameter nonresonance condition described by ellipse, which is another extension of a single-parameter nonresonance condition. As a special case, we replace the ellipse by a circle

and obtain the following results.

Corollary 3Assume that there exist a circleand a positive constantcsuch that

(18)

andfsatisfies the growth condition

(19)

Then PBVP (1)-(2) has at least one solution.

Condition (18) indicates that the circle does not intersect any of the eigenline of LEVP (10). Hence, we call condition (18)-(19) the two-parameter nonresonance condition described by circle, which is also an extension of a single-parameter nonresonance condition. Similarly to Corollary 2 and Theorem 3, we have the following corollaries.

Corollary 4Assume that the partial derivativesandexist in. If there exists a circlesuch that (18) and

(20)

hold for a positive real numberlarge enough, then PBVP (1)-(2) has at least one solution.

Corollary 5Assume that the partial derivativesandexist in. If there exists a circlesuch that (18) and

(21)

hold, then PBVP (1)-(2) has a unique solution.

### 2 Preliminaries

Let be not eigenvalue pair of LEVP (10), i.e., . For any , we consider the linear periodic boundary value problem (LPBVP)

(22)

By the Fredholm alternative, LPBVP (22) has a unique solution . If , then the solution . We define an operator T by

Then is a bounded linear operator, and we call it the solution operator of LPBVP (22). By compactness of the embedding , is a compact linear operator.

Let . We choose an equivalent norm in the Sobolev space by

and denote the Banach space reendowed norm by .

Lemma 1Let. Then the solution operator of LPBVP (22) is a compact linear operator and its norm satisfies

(23)

Proof We only need to prove that (23) holds.

Since is a complete orthogonal system of , every can be expressed by the Fourier series expansion

where , . By the Parseval equality, we have

where is the norm in . Now, by uniqueness of the Fourier series expansion, the solution of LPBVP (22) has the Fourier series expansion

and can be expressed by the Fourier series expansion

Hence, by the Parseval equality, we have

(24)

(25)

From (24) and (25), we have

This implies that (23) holds. The proof of Lemma 1 is completed. □

Lemma 2Letand. Then the rectanglesatisfies condition (14) if and only if condition (11) holds.

Proof Condition (14) holds

and on the same side of every eigenline ,

and have the same sign,

,

.

The proof of Lemma 2 is completed. □

Lemma 3Letand. Then the ellipsesatisfies condition (16) if and only if condition (15) holds.

Proof Condition (16) holds

⇔ for , and on the same side of every eigenline ,

and have the same sign,

,

,

,

.

The proof of Lemma 3 is completed. □

### 3 Proof of the main results

Proof of Theorem 1 We define a mapping by

(26)

It follows from (12) that is continuous and satisfies

(27)

Therefore, the mapping defined by

(28)

is a completely continuous mapping. By the definition of the operator T, the solution of PBVP (1)-(2) is equivalent to the fixed point of the operator Q.

From (7), (11), and Lemma 1, it follows that . We choose . Let . Then for any , from (27) and (28), we have

Therefore, . By the Schauder’s fixed point theorem, Q has at least one fixed point in , which is a solution of PBVP (1)-(2). □

By Lemma 2, we can obtain the following existence result:

Corollary 6Assume that the pairsatisfies (7). If there exist positive constantsa, b, andcsuch that (12) and (14) hold, then PBVP (1)-(2) has at least one solution.

Proof of Theorem 2 Let be a mapping defined by (26). Then it follows from (12) that is continuous and satisfies

Thus, the mapping is completely continuous. By using (7), (15), and Lemma 1, a similar argument as in the proof of Theorem 1 shows that Q has at least one fixed point in , which is the solution of PBVP (1)-(2). □

Proof of Theorem 3 Let be defined by (26). Then is continuous. For any , from (17), we have

It follows from the above that . Thus, is a continuous mapping and it satisfies

It follows from (16) and Lemma 3 that (15) holds. By (15) and Lemma 1, it is easy to see that . Hence, is a contraction mapping. By the Banach contraction mapping principle, Q has a unique fixed point, which is the unique solution of PBVP (1)-(2). □

As in Corollary 6, in Theorem 2 we can use condition (16) to replace condition (15), and in Theorem 3, we use condition (15) to replace condition (16).

### Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

### Authors’ contributions

HY carried out the study of the two-parameter nonresonance conditions for periodic boundary value problems, participated in the proof of the main results and drafted the manuscript. YL participated in the design of the study and performed the coordination. PC participated in the proof of the main results. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

### Acknowledgements

Research supported by the NNSF of China (Grant No. 11261053), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Gansu Universities and the Project of NWNU-LKQN-11-3.

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