Abstract
We study the spectrum on the imaginary axis of the underlying operator which corresponds to the M/G/1 queueing model with exceptional service time for the first customer in each busy period that was described by infinitely many partial differential equations with integral boundary conditions and obtain that all points on the imaginary axis except 0 belong to the resolvent set of the operator and 0 is an eigenvalue of the operator and its adjoint operator. Thus, by combining these results with our previous results, we deduce that the timedependent solution of the model converges strongly to its steadystate solution. Moreover, we show that our result on convergence is optimal.
MSC: 47A10, 47D99.
Keywords:
M/G/1 queueing model with exceptional service time for the first customer in each busy period; semigroup; eigenvalue; resolvent set1 Introduction
According to Takagi [1], the M/G/1 queueing system with exceptional service time for the first customer in each busy period can be described by the following partial differential equations with integral boundary conditions:
where ; represents the probability that there is no customer in the system and the server is idle at time t; () represents the probability that at time t there are n customers in the system and the server is busy with remaining service time lying between in ; () represents the probability that at time t there are n customers in the system and the server is busy with the elapsed service time of the first service lying between x and ; λ represents the arrival rate of customers; is the service rate at x; is the exceptional service rate at x.
Many papers have been published about queueing systems with server vacations. But most works on vacation models have been limited to the analysis of steadystates. There are few treatments of transient behavior, see Welch [2], Minh [3], Takagi [1], Gupur [4,5] for instance. In 1990, Takagi [1] first established the mathematical model of the M/G/1 queueing system with exceptional service time for the first customer in each busy period by using the supplementary variable technique, then studied the timedependent solution of the model by using probability generating functions and got the Laplace transform of the probability generating function. Roughly speaking, he obtained the existence of a timedependent solution of the model. In 2002, by using semigroup theory in functional analysis, Gupur [6] proved that the model has a unique positive timedependent solution which satisfies the probability condition. In 2003, Gupur [4] considered the asymptotic behavior of the timedependent solution of the model when and are constants. Firstly, he determined the resolvent set of the adjoint operator of the operator corresponding to the model; next he proved that 0 is an eigenvalue of the operator and its adjoint operator with geometric multiplicity one. Thus, by using Theorem 14 in Gupur, Li and Zhu [7] obtained that the timedependent solution of the model converges strongly to its steadystate solution. In 2009, Zhang and Gupur [8] found that the operator has one eigenvalue on the left complex halfplane. In 2011, Lin and Gupur [9] proved that the operator has infinitely many eigenvalues on the left complex halfplane which converges to zero and therefore showed that the convergence of the timedependent solution of the model obtained in Gupur [4] is the best result on the convergence, that is to say, it is impossible that the timedependent solution exponentially (uniformly) converges to its steadystate solution. In the case that and are functions, any literature about asymptotic behavior of the above model has not been found. This paper is an effort on this subject.
According to Theorem 14 in Gupur, Li and Zhu [7], to obtain the asymptotic behavior of the timedependent solution of the above model, we need to know the spectrum of the underlying operator on the imaginary axis. By investigating the above model and comparing with Gupur [10], one may find that the main difficult points of the above equations (1.1)(1.8) are that there are infinitely many equations and boundary conditions. When studying the population equation, Greiner [11] put forward an idea to perturb the boundary condition which states ‘one can introduce the maximal operator without the boundary condition and define a boundary operator, and by studying the spectrum of the boundary operator and the maximal operator can discuss the spectrum of the underlying operator which corresponds to the population equation.’ In 2007, Haji and Radl [12] successfully applied Greiner’s idea to the queueing model, in which both the service rate and arrival rate are constants, and studied the asymptotic behavior of its timedependent solution. Gupur [5,13] obtained the asymptotic behavior of the timedependent solutions of two queueing models by using Greiner’s idea. In this paper, firstly, by using probability generating functions, we prove that 0 is an eigenvalue of the underlying operator; next, by using the idea in Gupur [5,13], the result in Haji and Radl [12] and Corollary 2.3 in Nagel [14], we deduce the resolvent set of the underlying operator; thirdly, we show that 0 is an eigenvalue of the adjoint operator of the underlying operator, and therefore, by using Theorem 14 in Gupur, Li and Zhu [7], we obtain that the timedependent solution of the above model converges strongly to its steadystate solution. Finally, by Lin and Gupur [9] we show that our result on convergence is optimal, that is to say, it is impossible that the timedependent solution of the model converges exponentially to its steadystate solution. Although the idea and method in Gupur [4] are quite different, the main result is a special case of our result.
In this paper, we use the notations in Gupur [5,6,13]. Take the state space as follows:
It is obvious that X is a Banach space. In addition, X is also a Banach lattice under the following order relation:
For convenience, we introduce
We define
We choose a boundary space as
and define the boundary operators
Now we introduce the underlying operator by
Then the system of the above equations (1.1)(1.8) can be written as an abstract Cauchy problem in the Banach space X, which is just the form given in Gupur [6]
Gupur [6] has proved the following result for the system (1.9).
Theorem 1.1The operatorgenerates a positive contractionsemigroupand the system (1.9) has a unique positive timedependent solutionwhich satisfies
2 Main results
Lemma 2.1If, then 0 is an eigenvalue ofAwith geometric multiplicity one.
Proof We consider the equation , i.e.,
By solving (2.2)(2.5), we have
Through using (2.8)(2.11) repeatedly, we deduce
By combining (2.10) and (2.11) with (2.7) and using (2.13), we deduce
It is difficult to determine directly all and to verify . In the following, we use another method. We introduce the probability generating function for all complex variables . Theorem 1.1 ensures that is well defined. (2.2) and (2.3) give
By applying (2.6), (2.16), (2.14), (2.1), , and the L’Hospital rule it follows that
(2.16) and (2.17) give
(2.18) and (2.15) show that 0 is an eigenvalue of A. Moreover, from (2.12), (2.14), (2.1) and (2.6), it is easy to see that the eigenvectors corresponding to zero span one dimensional linear space, that is, the geometric multiplicity of 0 is one. □
According to Theorem 14 in Gupur, Li and Zhu [7], we know that in order to obtain the asymptotic behavior of the timedependent solution of the system (1.9), we need the spectrum of A on the imaginary axis. Through investigating the system (1.9), we find that the infinite number of equations and the boundary conditions are the difficult points. Greiner [11] put forward an idea to study the spectrum of A by perturbing boundary conditions. And by using the Greiner idea, Haji and Radl [12] gave a result which was described by the Dirichlet operator. In the following, by applying the result, we deduce the resolvent set of A on the imaginary axis. To do this, define as
and discuss the inverse of . For any given , consider the equation , that is,
By (2.19)(2.24) it is easy to calculate
If we set
then the above equations (2.25)(2.29) give, if the resolvent of exists,
From which together with the definition of the resolvent set we have the following result.
Lemma 2.2Letbe measurable, and. Then
Proof For any , by using integration by parts, we estimate
Similarly,
From (2.30), (2.31), and we deduce, for ,
which means that the result of this lemma is right. □
Proof If , then , which is equivalent to
By solving (2.37)(2.40) we have
Through inserting (2.41) and (2.43) into (2.36), it follows that
By using (2.41), (2.42), (2.43) and (2.44) repeatedly, we deduce
Since , by the imbedding theorem in Adams [15],
(2.45)(2.54) show that (2.32)(2.35) are true.
Conversely, if (2.32)(2.35) hold, then by using the formulas
integration by parts and the Fubini theorem, we estimate
(2.33) and (2.34) give
By combining (2.57), (2.58), (2.59) and (2.60) with (2.55) and (2.56), we derive
(2.55)(2.62) mean that and . □
It is not difficult to see that L is surjective. Moreover,
is invertible for . For we define the Dirichlet operator as
Lemma 2.3 gives the explicit form of for
where
From (2.63) and the definition of Φ, it is easy to determine the expression of for .
Haji and Radl [12] gave the following result through which we deduce the resolvent set of A on the imaginary axis.
By using Lemma 2.4 and Nagel [14], page 297, we derive the following result.
Lemma 2.5Letbe measurable, and. Then all points on the imaginary axis except zero belong to the resolvent set ofA.
Proof Take , , and . Then by the RiemannLebesgue lemma,
we know there exists such that
By replacing in (2.64) with , and using the fact
(2.65) means that when , the spectral radius , which implies for , and therefore by Lemma 2.4, we know for , that is,
On the other hand, since is positive uniformly bounded by Theorem 1.1, by Corollary 2.3 in Nagel [14], page 297, we know that is imaginary additively cyclic, which states that for all integer k, from which together with (2.66) and Lemma 2.1 we conclude . □
It is not difficult to prove , dual space of X, is as follows:
It is obvious that is a Banach space. Gupur [4] gave the expression of , the adjoint operator of A as follows:
where
Since is uniformly bounded, by Arendt and Batty [16] and Lemma 2.1, we know that 0 is an eigenvalue of . Furthermore, by replacing μ and η in Lemma 3 in Gupur [4] with and , respectively, we deduce the following result.
Lemma 2.6If, then 0 is an eigenvalue ofwith geometric multiplicity one.
Since Theorem 1.1, Lemma 2.1, Lemma 2.5 and Lemma 2.6 satisfy the conditions of Theorem 14 in Gupur, Li and Zhu [7], the following conclusion is the direct result of Theorem 14 in Gupur, Li and Zhu [7].
Theorem 2.7Letbe measurable, and. If, then the timedependent solution of the system (1.9) converges strongly to its steadystate solution, that is,
whereandare the eigenvectors in Lemma 2.6 and Lemma 2.1, respectively.
When and , Lin and Gupur [9] proved that if , then are eigenvalues of A with geometric multiplicity one for all . Which means that the result in Theorem 2.7 is optimal, that is to say, it is impossible that the timedependent solution of the system (1.9) exponentially converges to its steadystate solution.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions
All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Xinjiang (No: 2012211A023).
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