Abstract
In this paper, we discuss the existence and uniqueness of solutions for a RiemannLiouville type fractional differential equation with nonlocal fourpoint RiemannLiouville fractionalintegral boundary conditions by means of classical fixed point theorems. An illustration of main results is also presented with the aid of some examples.
MSC: 34A08, 34B10, 34B15.
Keywords:
fractional differential equations; nonlocal fractionalintegral boundary conditions; existence; fixed point1 Introduction
In recent years, boundary value problems of nonlinear fractional differential equations with a variety of boundary conditions have been investigated by many researchers. Fractional differential equations appear naturally in various fields of science and engineering and constitute an important field of research [14]. As a matter of fact, fractional derivatives provide an excellent tool for the description of memory and hereditary properties of various materials and processes. This is one of the characteristics of fractionalorder differential operators that contributes to the popularity of the subject and has motivated many researchers and modelers to shift their focus from classical models to fractional order models. In consequence, there has been a significant progress in the theoretical analysis like periodicity, asymptotic behavior and numerical methods for fractional differential equations. Some recent work on the topic can be found in [520] and the references therein.
Fractional boundary conditions (FBC) involving fractional derivative of order describe an intermediate boundary between the perfect electric conductor (PEC) and the perfect magnetic conductor (PMC), whereas and in FBC correspond to PEC and PMC, respectively. Fractional boundary conditions (FBC) are also matched with impedance boundary conditions (IBC) in the sense that the fractional order and in FBC correspond to the value of impedance and . Recall that the value of the impedance Z varies from 0 for PEC to i∞ for PMC. For more details, see [21].
In [22], the authors recently studied a problem of RiemannLiouville fractional differential equations with fractional boundary conditions:
where denotes the RiemannLiouville fractional derivative of order α and and .
In this paper, motivated by [22], we study a fully RiemannLiouville fractional nonlocal integral boundary value problem given by
where denotes the RiemannLiouville fractional derivative of order α, f is a given continuous function, denotes the RiemannLiouville integral of order β, and a, A, b, and B are real constants.
The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we establish an auxiliary lemma which is needed to define the solutions of the given problem. Section 3 contains main results. In Section 4, we discuss some examples for the illustration of the main results.
2 Preliminaries
Let us recall some basic definitions of fractional theory.
Definition 2.1 The RiemannLiouville fractional integral of order α for a continuous function is defined as
provided the integral exists.
Definition 2.2 For a continuous function , the RiemannLiouville derivative of fractional order is defined as
, where denotes the integer part of the real number α.
Lemma 2.1For, the solution of, subject to the boundary conditions given by (1.1) is
where
Proof For arbitrary constants , it is well known that the general solution of the equation , , can be written as
From (2.3), we have
where ϱ denotes ξ or η. Applying the given boundary conditions, we get
Solving the system of equations (2.6) for , , we find that
Substituting these values in (2.3), we get
where , , , and δ are given by (2.2). This completes the proof. □
3 Existence results
Let denote the Banach space of all continuous realvalued functions defined on with the norm . For , define , , and let be the space of all functions such that which turns out to be a Banach space when endowed with the norm .
Observe that problem (1.1) has solutions only if the operator has fixed points.
To establish the first existence result, we need the following fixed point theorem.
Theorem 3.1 ([23])
LetEbe a Banach space. Letbe a completely continuous operator, and let the setbe bounded. Then the operatorThas a fixed point inE.
Theorem 3.2Assume that there exists a constantsuch that, , . Then problem (1.1) has at least one solution in the space.
Proof As a first step, we show that the operator is completely continuous. The continuity of follows from the continuity of f. Let ℋ be a bounded set in . Hence ℋ is bounded on . Then, , , we have
which implies that . Hence is uniformly bounded. Also, for , , we have
Thus and hence is equicontinuous. So, by the ArzelaAscoli theorem, is completely continuous. Next, we consider the set
and show that V is bounded. For , we have
This implies that the set V is bounded independently of . Therefore, Theorem 3.1 applies and problem (1.1) has at least one solution on . This completes the proof. □
Theorem 3.3Assume that there exists a constantsuch that
then problem (1.1) has a unique solution inif, where
By the definition of , we obtain
It follows that is a contraction. Hence, by the Banach contraction theorem, problem (1.1) has a unique solution in . This completes the proof. □
Our next existence result is based on LeraySchauder nonlinear alternative [24].
Lemma 3.1 (LeraySchauder’s nonlinear alternative type)
LetEbe a Banach space, Mbe a closed, convex subset ofE, Ube an open subset ofCand. Suppose thatis a continuous, compact (that is, is a relatively compact subset ofC) map. Then either (i) Fhas a fixed point inor (ii) there areandwith.
Theorem 3.4Letbe a continuous function. Furthermore, assume that:
(A_{1}) There exist a functionand a nondecreasing functionsuch that, ;
(A_{2}) There exists a constantsuch that
whereνis given by (3.2).
Then boundary value problem (1.1) has at least one solution.
Proof First we shall show that the operator defined by (3.1) maps bounded sets into bounded ones in . For , let be a bounded set in . Then, for , we have
where ν is given by (3.2).
Next, we shall show that the operator maps bounded sets into equicontinuous sets. Let with and . Then we have
which tends to zero independently of as . Thus is completely continuous. Now let u be a solution of problem (1.1), then for and , we have
which can be rewritten as
By assumption (A_{2}), there exists M such that . Let us set
Note that the operator is completely continuous and by the definition of , there is no such that for some . In consequence, by Lemma 3.1, we conclude that has at least one fixed point , which is a solution of problem (1.1). □
4 Examples
Example 4.1 Consider the following fractional integral boundary value problem:
Since
therefore, Theorem 3.2 applies and problem (4.1) has at least one solution on .
Example 4.2 Consider the problem
(ν is given by (3.2)) and in consequence, . Thus, all the assumptions of Theorem 3.3 are satisfied. Therefore, by the conclusion of Theorem 3.3, there exists a unique solution for problem (4.2).
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions
Each of the authors, BA, AA, AAS and RPA contributed to each part of this work equally and read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Acknowledgements
This research was partially supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
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