In this article, we study the periodic solution of a quasilinear parabolic equation with nonlocal terms and Neumann boundary conditions. By using the theory of Leray-Schauder degree, we obtain the existence of a nontrivial nonnegative time periodic solution.
The aim of this work is to consider the following periodic problem for a quasilinear parabolic equation:
where Ω is a bounded domain in with smooth boundary ∂Ω, denotes the outward normal derivative on ∂Ω, , satisfies some suitable smoothness and structure conditions. This model can be used to describe the models for some interesting phenomena in mathematical biology, fisheries and wildlife management. The function gives the number of individuals (per unit area) of the species at position x and time t, where x represents the spatial variable and t represents the time. The term models a tendency to avoid high density in the habitat, describes the ways in which a given population grows and shrinks over time, as controlled by birth, death, emigration or immigration, and the Neumann boundary condition models the trend of the biology population who survive on the boundary.
In last decades, linear parabolic equations with nonlocal terms have been investigated by numerous researchers [1-4]. A typical model was submitted by Allegretto and Nistri  and they proposed the following equation:
with the Dirichlet boundary conditions. Also, according to the actual needs, many authors divert attention to nonlinear diffusion equations with nonlocal terms such as the porous equation [5,6] with a typical form
and the p-Laplacian equation  with a typical form
Equation (1.4) is degenerate if and singular if . Equation (1.5) is degenerate if and singular if . Only the cases and are considered with a few exceptions. All these equations are considered with the Dirichlet boundary condition which describes that the boundary is lethal to the species. Moreover, the methods in these papers are all based on the theory of Leray-Schauder degree. However, results on the quasilinear periodic parabolic equations with nonlocal terms and Neumann boundary conditions are few. In a recent paper , Wang and Yin considered the following periodic Neumann boundary value problem:
Inspired by the work of , we consider the periodic solutions of the Neumann boundary value problem of a quasilinear parabolic equation with nonlocal terms. Compared with the Dirichlet boundary condition, the Neumann boundary condition causes an additional difficulty in establishing some a priori estimates. On the other hand, different from the cases of the Dirichlet boundary condition, an auxiliary problem for (1.1)-(1.3) is considered for using the theory of Leray-Schauder degree. We prove that this problem (1.1)-(1.3) admits a nontrivial nonnegative periodic solution, that is, the following theorem.
The article is organized in the following way. In Section 2, we give some necessary preliminaries including the auxiliary problem. In Section 3, we establish some necessary a priori estimations of the solutions of the auxiliary problem. Then we show the proof of the main result of this paper.
In the paper, we assume that
Since the regularity follows from a quite standard approach, we focus on the discussion of weak solutions in the following sense.
In order to use the theory of Leray-Schauder degree, we introduce a map by considering the following auxiliary problem:
where ε is a sufficiently small positive constant, is a parameter and . Then we can define a map with . Applying classical estimates (see ), we can see that is bounded by , and is Hölder continuous in . Then, by the Arzela-Ascoli theorem, the map G is compact. So, the map G is a compact continuous map. Let , where , we can see that the nonnegative solution of problem (2.2)-(2.4) is also a nonnegative fixed point of the map . So, we will study the existence of nonnegative fixed points of the map instead of a nonnegative solution of problem (2.2)-(2.4). And the desired solution u of (1.1)-(1.3) would be obtained as a limit point of .
3 The proof of the main result
First, by the same method as in , we can obtain the nonnegativity of the solutions of problem (2.2)-(2.4).
By using the Gagliardo-Nirenberg inequality, we have
By Young’s inequality,
then we obtain
and combining (3.5) with (3.6), we have
Therefore, we conclude that
which implies that
where C is a positive independent of λ. By Young’s inequality, we have
Combining with the above inequality, we have
which together with (3.9) implies (3.1), and thus the proof is complete. □
Corollary 1There exists a positive constant R independent ofεsuch that
Proof It follows from Lemma 2 that there exists a positive constant R independent of λ, ε such that
The proof is completed. □
whereris a positive constant independent ofε.
By the periodicity of u, the first term on the left-hand side is zero. The second term on the left-hand side can be rewritten as
The third term of the left-hand side of equation (3.11) can be rewritten as
Then from (3.10), we obtain
From assumption (A1), we can see that
From assumption (A2), we can see that
holds for any sufficiently small r and ε, which is a contradiction to assumption (A3). The proof is complete. □
The proof is completed. □
Now, we show the proof of the main result of this paper.
Proof of Theorem 1
Using Corollaries 1 and 2, we have
where R and r are positive constants and . Problem (2.2)-(2.4) admits a nonnegative nontrivial solution with . Combining with the regularity results  and a similar argument as in , we can prove that the limit function of is a nonnegative nontrivial periodic solution of problem (1.1)-(1.3). □
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
RH, JS and BW carried out the proof of the main part of this article, BW corrected the manuscript and participated in its design and coordination. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
This work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation of China (11271100, 11126222), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. HIT. NSRIF. 2011006), the Natural Sciences Foundation of Heilongjiang Province (QC2011C020) and also by the 985 project of Harbin Institute of Technology.
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