In this paper, we are concerned with an inverse problem for the Sturm-Liouville operator with Coulomb potential using a new kind of spectral data that is known as nodal points. We give a reconstruction of q as a limit of a sequence of functions whose nth term is dependent only on eigenvalue and its associated nodal data. It is mentioned that this method is based on the works of Law and Yang, but we have applied the method to the singular Sturm-Liouville problem.
MSC: 34L05, 45C05.
Keywords:Coulomb potential; nodal point; reconstruction formula
Inverse problems of spectral analysis imply the reconstruction of a linear operator from some or other of its spectral characteristics. Such characteristics are spectra (for different boundary conditions), normalizing constants, spectral functions, scattering data, etc. An early important result in this direction, which gave vital impetus for further development of inverse problem theory, was obtained in . At present, inverse problems are studied for certain special classes of ordinary differential operators. Inverse problems from two spectra are the most simple in their formulation and well studied in [2,3]. An effective method of constructing a regular and singular Sturm-Liouville operator from a spectral function or from two spectra is given in [4-7].
In some recent interesting works [12,13], Hald and McLaughlin and Browne and Sleeman have taken a new approach to inverse spectral theory for the Sturm-Liouville problem. The novelty of these works lies in the use of nodal points as the given spectral data. In recent years, inverse nodal problems have been studied by several authors [14-21]etc.
In this paper, we deal with an inverse nodal problem for the Sturm-Liouville operator with Coulomb potential. We have reconstructed the potential function q from the nodal points of eigenfunctions, provided q is smooth enough. The method is based on a series of works by Law and Yang [14,17].
Before giving the main results, we mention some physical properties of the Sturm-Liouville operator with Coulomb potential. Learning about the motion of electrons moving under the Coulomb potential is of significance in quantum theory. Solving these types of problems allows us to find energy levels not only for a hydrogen atom but also for single valence electron atoms such as sodium. For hydrogen atom, the Coulomb potential is given by , where r is the radius of the nucleus, e is electronic charge. According to this, we use the time-dependent Schrödinger equation
where Ψ is the wave function, ħ is Planck’s constant and m is the mass of electron. In this equation, if the Fourier transform is applied
it will convert to energy equation dependent on the situation as follows:
Therefore, energy equation in the field with the Coulomb potential becomes
If this hydrogen atom is substituted to other potential area, then the energy equation becomes
If we make the necessary transformation, then we can get a Sturm-Liouville equation with Coulomb potential
where λ is a parameter which corresponds to the energy .
We consider the singular Sturm-Liouville problem
Let be the nth eigenvalue and , be nodal points of the nth eigenfunction. Also, let be the ith nodal domain of the nth eigenfunction and let be the associated nodal length. We also define the function by .
2 Main results
In this section, we try to obtain some asymptotic results and a reconstruction formula for the potential q, which has been obtained as a solution of an inverse nodal problem.
Lemma 2.1The solution of problem (1.1)-(1.3) has the following form:
By integrating the first term twice on the right-hand side by parts and taking the conditions into account (1.2), we find that
Lemma 2.2The eigenvalues of problem (1.1)-1.3) are the roots of (1.3). This spectral characteristic satisfies the following asymptotic expression:
Proof By using some iterations and trigonometric calculations in (2.1), we obtain
for some integer i, then
The nodal length is
This completes the proof of Lemma 2.3. □
This proves Lemma 2.4. □
Proof When we consider (2.4) in the form
By Lemma 2.4
tends to zero as . Take a sequence of continuous functions which converges to q in . Then has a subsequence converging to q almost everywhere in . We call this subsequence . Take any x such that converges to . Then for a given , we can fix a large k such that . Hence
By Lemma 2.3,
On the other hand,
In the above process, we assume that . The estimate also holds if . Hence if , converges to uniformly on . Thus can be arbitrarily small. Because is dense in , for any , there exists a sequence convergent to q in . Hence, fix n sufficiently large,
By using (2.4) we have
From Lemma 2.6, the first limit holds and the second limit also holds. On the other hand, the sequence of functions
Then, we may apply the Lebesque dominated convergence theorem to show that (2.5) is valid. The proof of Theorem 2.2 is completed. □
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
MS wrote the first draft and ESP corrected and improved the final version. Both authors read and approved the final draft.
The authors would like to thank the editor and referees for their valuable comments and remarks which led to a great improvement of the article.
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