Abstract
This paper investigates the higher order differential equations with nonlocal boundary conditions
The existence results of multiple monotone positive solutions are obtained by means of fixed point index theory for operators in a cone.
MSC: 34B10, 34B18.
Keywords:
monotone positive solutions; multiplicity; higher order differential equations; nonlocal boundary conditions1 Introduction
In this paper, we are concerned with the existence of multiple monotone positive solutions for the higher order differential equation
subject to the following integral boundary conditions:
where
Boundary value problems (BVPs for short) for nonlinear differential equations arise in many areas of applied mathematics and physics. Many authors have discussed the existence of positive solutions for second order or higher order differential equations with boundary conditions defined at a finite number of points, for instance, [112]. In [2], Graef and Yang considered the following nthorder multipoint BVP:
where
where
Boundary value problems with integral boundary conditions for ordinary differential equations represent a very interesting and important class of problems and arise in the study of various physical, biological and chemical processes [1315], such as heat conduction, chemical engineering, underground water flow, thermoelasticity, and plasma physics. They include two, three, multipoint and nonlocal BVPs as special cases. The existence and multiplicity of positive solutions for such problems have received a great deal of attention, see [1632] and the references therein. In [17], Feng, Ji and Ge considered the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions for a class of nonlinear boundary value problems of second order differential equations with integral boundary conditions in ordered Banach spaces
The arguments are based upon a specially constructed cone and fixed point theory in a cone for strict set contraction operators.
Motivated by the works mentioned above, in this paper, we consider the existence of
multiple monotone positive solutions for BVP (1.1) and (1.2). In comparison with previous
works, our paper has several new features. Firstly, we consider higher order boundary
value problems, and we allow the nonlinearity f to contain derivatives of the unknown function
LetKbe a cone in a Banach spaceE. LetDbe an open bounded subset ofEwith
(1) If
(2) If there exists
(3) LetUbe open inEsuch that
2 Preliminary lemmas
Let
We make the following assumptions:
(
(
Lemma 2.1Assume that (
has a unique solutionuthat can be expressed in the form
where
Proof Firstly, we prove that if u is a solution of BVP (2.1), then it will take the form of (2.2). Now, integrating differential equation (2.1) from 0 to t twice, we have
Letting
Substituting the boundary conditions of (2.1) and (2.5) into (2.4) yields
and, consequently,
Solving the above two equations for
and so
Hence, (2.2) follows from (2.6) and (2.7).
Next we prove that the u given by (2.2) satisfies the differential equation and boundary conditions of (2.1). From (2.2), we have
Direct differentiation of (2.8) gives
and, similarly,
Therefore, by solving the above two equations with the double integrals as unknowns, we have
and
Hence (2.6) follows from (2.2), (2.9) and (2.10), and thus
Defining
then
Remark 2.1 If (
Lemma 2.2Let
Proof It is easy to show that
For any
□
Lemma 2.3Assume that (
then
Proof Let
For
Thus
i.e.,
On the other hand,
and so
i.e.,
Now,
From (2.14) and
Remark 2.2 From Lemma 2.3, if u is a positive solution of BVP (1.1) and (1.2), then u is nondecreasing on
Let
Obviously, K is a cone in E. For any
Then u is a solution of BVP (1.1) and (1.2) if and only if u solves the operator equation
Lemma 2.4Suppose that (
Proof For all
and
Thus, further from the first inequality of (2.12), we have
Hence,
Next by standard methods and the AscoliArzela theorem, one can prove that
Let
Proceeding as for the proof of Lemma 2.5 in [33], we have the following.
Lemma 2.5
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d) if
Now for convenience we introduce the following notations:
To prove our main results, we need the following lemmas.
Lemma 2.6Assume that (
then
Proof For
This implies that
Lemma 2.7Assume that (
then
Proof Let
In fact, if not, then there exist
This implies that
3 Main results
In the following, we shall give the main results on the existence of multiple positive solutions of BVP (1.1) and (1.2).
Theorem 3.1Suppose that (
(
(
Then BVP (1.1) and (1.2) has two nondecreasing positive solutions
Proof Assume that (
Corollary 3.1If there exists
(
(
then BVP (1.1) and (1.2) has at least two nondecreasing positive solutions inK.
Proof We show that (
then for
This implies that
Remark 3.1 We establish the multiplicity of monotone positive solutions for a higher order differential
equation with integral boundary conditions, and we allow the nonlinearity f to contain derivatives of the unknown function
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions
XH wrote the first manuscript and LL corrected and improved the final version. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Acknowledgements
Research supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11371221, 11201260), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20123705120004, 20123705110001), a Project of Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program (J11LA06) and Foundation of Qufu Normal University (BSQD20100103).
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