Abstract
We treat the nonhomogeneous boundary value problems with ϕLaplacian operator , , , , where () is an increasing homeomorphism such that , , , , , and is continuous. We will show that even if some of the τ and are negative, the boundary value problem with singular ϕLaplacian operator is always solvable, and the problem with a bounded ϕLaplacian operator has at least one positive solution.
Keywords:
nonhomogeneous; ϕLaplacian; negative coefficient; positive solution1 Introduction
We are concerned with the nonhomogeneous boundary value problem with ϕLaplacian operator
where () is an increasing homeomorphism such that , , , , , and is continuous.
According to the related literature [15], a ϕLaplacian operator is said to be singular when the domain of ϕ is finite (i.e., ), on the contrary the operator is called regular. On the other hand, we say that ϕ is bounded if its range is finite (i.e., ) and unbounded in other case. There are three paradigmatic models in this context:
(1) (regular unbounded): The pLaplacian operator
(2) , (singular unbounded): The relativistic operator
(3) , (regular bounded): The one dimensional mean curvature operator
The study of the ϕLaplacian equations is a classical topic that has attracted the attention of many experts because of its interest in applications. Since 2004, in a number of papers, Bereanu and Mawhin have considered such problems with Dirichlet, Neumann or periodic boundary conditions (see, for example, [13] and the references therein). In these papers, the various boundary value problems are reduced to the search for fixed point of some nonlinear operators defined on Banach spaces. In particular, they have also considered some boundary value problems with nonhomogeneous boundary conditions, and they obtained the existence of solutions by the use of the Schauder fixed point theorem (see [2,3]). Recently, Torres [4] proved the existence of a solution of a forced Liénard differential equation with ϕLaplacian by means of Schauder fixed point theorem.
We note here that many nonlinear differential problems require the search of positive, meaningful, solutions. The existence of positive solutions for ordinary differential equations and pLaplacian equations have been studied by several authors and many interesting results has been obtained (only to mention some of them; see [57], and the references therein). If the coefficient occurring in the boundary conditions takes a negative value, then the existence of a positive solution for a BVP with ϕLaplacian operator is less considered because it is sometimes difficult to construct a corresponding cone for applying the fixed point theorem.
The purpose of this paper is to study the nonhomogeneous boundary value problem (1.1) with ϕLaplacian operator even in the case where some of the τ and are negative. Firstly, we show that the problem with singular ϕLaplacian operator is always solvable by the use of Schauder fixed point theorem. Secondly, we prove that the problem with bounded ϕLaplacian operator has at least one positive solution by means of a change of variable and the Krasnosel’skii fixed point theorem. As we will see, the interesting points of the paper are the following:
(1) Some of the τ and coefficients in (1.1) are allowed to take a negative value.
(2) In order to obtain a positive solution of the problem (1.1), we make a change of variable and generate two firstorder differential equations and the corresponding nonlinear operator B. The new method can be used for the differential domains and ranges of and give an a priori estimate of the solution.
This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we give some preliminaries and lemmas. In Section 3, we show some theorems on the existence of (positive) solutions of the differential equations (1.1). Moreover, an example is given to illustrate our results.
2 Preliminaries and lemmas
Firstly, we consider the following ϕLaplacian differential equation:
Next we make the change of variable
i.e.,
Together with (2.1), we get the following two firstorder differential equations:
and
Integration in (2.4) yields
Then we get
Thus, together with the boundary condition in (2.5), we obtain
where we denote and . Thus (2.5) can be rewritten as follows:
Integration leads to
Now, we define two nonlinear operators B and S, respectively, by
and
Remark 2.1 From the deduction of (2.2)(2.7), we find that if is well defined and x is a fixed point of the nonlinear operator B, then in (2.6) is a solution of the problem (1.1).
To such a continuous function f, we associate its Nemytskii operator defined by
It is easy to verify that is continuous and takes bounded sets into bounded sets.
Lemma 2.1 (See [8])
LetXbe a Banach space anda cone. Suppose thatandare bounded open sets contained inXsuch thatand. Suppose further thatis a completely continuous operator. If either
3 The main result
Let X be the Banach space with the maximum norm . Define a cone by
For the sake of convenience, we give the following conditions:
(i) The nonlinearity satisfies
(iii) There exists a positive constant r such that
Remark 3.1
(1) If , for all , then the condition (iv) clearly holds.
(2) If , instead of conditions (i) and (ii), we assume that for any , the following inequalities hold:
where are two constants. Also, the condition (3.1) is replaced by
Case I. Singular ϕLaplacian operator: ().
Theorem 3.1Iffis continuous, then the problem (1.1) has at least one solution.
Proof Define a set by
From the definition of , (2.2), (2.7), and (2.8), we get, for any ,
and
Thus . Utilizing (2.9) and ArzelaAscoli theorem, it is easy to verify that the nonlinear operator S is a completely continuous operator. Therefore, the nonlinear operator S has at least one fixed point by Schauder fixed point theorem.
From the definition of S in (2.8), we have
i.e.,
Then we obtain
and
Consequently, we conclude that the fixed point of S is a solution of the problem (1.1). □
Remark 3.2 Theorem 3.1 shows that if ϕ is singular () and f is continuous on , then the problem (1.1) is always solvable.
Case II. Bounded ϕLaplacian operator: , .
Theorem 3.2If the conditions (i)(iv) hold, then the nonlinear operatorBdefined by (2.7) has at least one fixed point. Further, the problem (1.1) has at least one positive solution.
Proof Define a set by
From the conditions (ii) and (iv), we obtain, for any ,
Clearly, the nonlinear operator is well defined.
The condition (iii) implies that we find a constant such that
Define a set by
In virtue of the increasing property of , we get, for any ,
We choose a small positive constant such that and define . Then for any , we find
In addition, a standard argument involving the ArzelaAscoli theorem implies that is a completely continuous operator. Therefore, the nonlinear operator B has at least one fixed point by the use of Lemma 2.1. Let be a fixed point of B, then, from (2.6), we obtain
Consequently, we get from Remark 2.1 that the problem (1.1) has a positive solution . □
Remark 3.3 In order to prove the existence of a positive solution of the problem (1.1), we make a change of variable and introduce a firstorder differential equation, and investigate the existence of a fixed point of the corresponding nonlinear operator B. The technique can be used for the different domains and ranges of and give an a priori estimate of the solution.
Theorem 3.3Ifandfsatisfies the condition
for any, then the problem (1.1) has at least one solution.
Proof Adopting a similar technique to (2.2)(2.6), we define a nonlinear operator by
Then the operator has at least one fixed point by the use of Schauder fixed point theorem. Applying expression (2.6), we conclude that the problem (1.1) has at least one solution. □
Remark 3.4 Observe that the solution provided by Theorem 3.3 could be trivial or negative.
Theorem 3.4If the conditions (ii) and (iv) hold andfsatisfies the condition
for any, then problem (1.1) has no solution.
Proof Taking arbitrarily , we get from (3.2)
Thus, it implies that there exists a neighborhood such that for any . This implies that the nonlinear operator is not well defined, since the domain of is the interval and thus a solution of (1.1) cannot exist. □
Example 3.1 We consider the following nonhomogeneous boundary value problem with ϕLaplacian operator:
where
It is easy to see that the nonlinearity f satisfies the condition (i), that is,
and there exists a positive constant such that the following inequalities hold:
and
Then conditions (ii)(iv) also hold. Therefore, we find from Theorem 3.2 that the differential equation (3.3) has at least one positive solution.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions
All authors contributed significantly in writing this paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Acknowledgements
The authors would wish to express their appreciations to the anonymous referee for his/her valuable suggestions, which have greatly improved this paper. The work was partially supported by NSFC of China (No. 11201248), K.C. Wong Fund of Ningbo University.
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